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Diplomas and the Haitian Diplomés' Mission

Emmanuel W. Védrine

Dec. 13, 2004

Soldats en Haïti

Well, it's a good idea to have DIPLOMAS and I would encourage anyone to go for them. We have been living in a society where the majority of people are ILLITERATE. That has had so far a great impact on that country's development. The more educated people are, the better it is for a country, and we can certainly understand why most French would agree with this phrase: “The French are the resources of France”. But the BIG questions we may ask are the followings:

  1. What have most of those with many DIPLOMAS done for Haiti?
  2. What have most of those with many DIPLOMAS contributed to the building of a new Haitian society?

We could go on and on asking a series of questions pertaining to the issue, an important one if we would like to get deeper and deeper in the MISSION of the “literate citizen”.

Today, it is not surprising to many of us to hear that “THE LITERATE HAITIANS HAVE CONTRIBUTED MOSTLY TO THE FALL OF HAITI”. We could certainly go into details with this issue by developing a whole “philosophy from the Haitian Reality”. A renown Haitian scholar (a man of science and letters), Dr. Jean Metellus, a retired professor of Medicine from the prestigious College de France in Paris and one of Haiti's renown writers, states in his book of essays “Haiti une nation pathétique” that Education in Haiti has always been “un cheval de bataille” used by elite to get to power (in the sense that once getting there, they would do great things about it – quite a nice promise to get votes and people's attention, but as soon as they get there they don't perform it.

When one starts reading The 1987 Haitian Constitution, oh Lord! It's so beautiful, and anyone who happens to know a little bit about The First Independent Black Country in the world would say “Gee! These people are quite advanced democratically ” particularly when reading these sections on education:

Article 32 : The State guarantees the right to education. It sees to the physical, intellectual, moral, professional, social and civic training of the population.

Article 32-1 : Education is the responsibility of the State and its territorial divisions. They must make schooling available to all, free of charge, and ensure that public and private sector teachers are properly trained.

Article 32-2 : The first responsibility of the Sate and its territorial divisions is education of the masses, which is the only way the country can be developed. The States shall encourage and facilitate private enterprise in this field.

Article 32-3 : Primary schooling is compulsory under penalties to be prescribed by law. Classroom facilities and teaching materials shall be provided by the State to elementary school students free of charge.

Article 32-9 : The State and its territorial divisions have the duty to make all necessary provisions to intensify the literacy campaign for the masses. They encourage all initiatives to that end.

Article 32-10 : Teachers are entitled to a fair salary.

Article 33 : There shall be freedom of education at all levels. This freedom shall be exercised under the control of the State.

Well, some Haitian critics may say that it's still early because this Constitution is not yet 100% observed because of the power of darkness that still reigns over the sacred land of Dessalines after the Duvalier's Dynasty. In other words, military dictatorships, internal warfare, civilian dictatorship, “caudillismo”, and a whole reign of terror within the concept of “power of darkness”.

The questions in point “1” and “2” should be our focus, and they are also questions for any individual with DIPLOMAS to take a moment to reflect on them. Nothing wrong and absolutely wrong when you go to school, you work hard to get a diploma or diplomas in any discipline. But, what are you going to do vis-à-vis your community /your country in this sense after receiving them? Are you just going to hang them on your house, office walls to impress people? It's good that you have certain qualifications and it's also good for people to know about it, but what is your vision in the sense of changing your community /your country for the best with all the knowledge you've acquired?

Our Haitian society has been quite a selfish one, and I should say with no doubt that our scholars have contributed a great deal to the underdevelopment of our country, and to all of its chaos. This is not something new to some of us who have been trying very hard to tell the truth, even if it is risky sometimes. If we go back in history, it has been the same old song, the same tango since after Haiti 's independence where when MOST Haitian scholars after returning from Europe did NOTHING that would change our society or have a POSTIVE impact on it. They've have been an “élite de vaut rien” with neither a short-term nor a long-term vision for the country's development.

Scholars MOST take position or side when their countries are in danger. Their voice must be heard when their countries are facing chaos. Haiti is in chaos today under a third visual OCCUPATION and the saddest part of it, the year of its bicentennial of independence when everyone should have united to celebrate with joy and love such an event. So far, nobody knows for sure how long it will last or what it will bring and what impact it will have on our future generations. At this moment we can only guess and keep on guessing.

If we are occupied today, truly it is not of the U.S, Canada and France's fault but rather the fault of some of our scholars, our brothers and of many of our politicians or the so-called “leaders” who have invited them to do so in the first place for their own interests. But at the same time, they (those who have invited them) are embarrassed in a way because of their prior expectations. Now if they are smart enough, they must reflect on the taste of occupation. Quite a wrong bet! It is not the fault of the Haitian peasants, the beggars, the little merchants, the illiterates, the innocent children who are sleeping in the streets of Port-au-Prince, the little “restavèk” who have been in-house slaves across the country all their lives or all of the underdogs who are also members of our corrupted society. It's not their fault at all for they can neither read nor write. They have never been to school. They can't go to Washington to lobby in English. They can't speak neither French nor English to be in touch with the International Community that pretends to help Haiti through the powerless U.N. But they are not blind. They've been experiencing on a daily basis the Haitian Reality. They see things with their naked eyes. They can only express themselves behind closed doors with some of their close friends or neighbors.

What do most of our scholars do today in the process of DECOLONIZING Haiti as our forefathers have done two hundred years ago? The answer is grate santi or nothing and a absolutely nothing. This is the reality right here in front of us, a mirror in which we are looking at ourselves, and a part of the Haitian Reality. Who can talk about the morgue's condition of Haiti's General Hospital (where hundred of bodies are in putrefaction there; among them, bodies of many innocent citizen who have been gunned down this year, bodies of those who dies because of lack of ! medical care)? If only that morgue could talk… if only these ravines with headless corpses around Port-au-Prince neighborhoods could talk… if only the skinny and hungry dogs that are strolling down the streets days and night in search of a meat-less bone could talk… if only those silent witnesses could let us and the whole world hear their shocking voices of what they have perceived… If only God could talk directly to us, telling us the whole truth… Who can talk about violation of human right that has been going on since the beginning of March of 2004? Who can talk about innocent children who are sleeping in the streets that group of armed bandits kill for no reason in a clean-up process? Who can talk about the condition of the prisoners who've been there since March and have never seen a judge? Who can talk about the real mission of the U.N soldiers, parading the streets of Port-au-Prince and other parts of the country? Are they really doing something to help the people when Port-au-Prince has become a new Baghdad or are they just there for vacations, enjoying the good weather of the country and have all types of fun? What happen to all those people with many diplomas from big universities abroad? Those who also reside in Diaspora? Are they dead? Are they blind? Can they talk? Can! they think? Can they really write? Thinking about the issue has inspired me to write “Nos intellectuels dans l'Histoire Dayiti” (our scholars in Haiti 's history). Merry OCCUPATION to those who have welcomed it! And Happy New Year 2005 to all those who are thinking about Haiti 's political labyrinth and the best way to get out of it.



Diplòm ak misyon Ayisyen k diplome yo


13 des. 2004

Bon, se yon bèl ide pou gen DIPLÒM e m ap ankouraje nenpòt moun pou eseye genyen yo. N ap viv nan yon sosyete kote pifò moun ILETRE. Sa gen yon gwo efè sou devlopman peyi a. Plis moun edike, se plis sa ta bon pou yon peyi, e nou kapab sètènman konprann poukisa pifò Fransè ta dakò ak fraz sa a: «Fransè yo se resous Lafrans». Men GWO kesyon nou kapab poze se sa yo:

  1. Kisa pifò moun ki gen DIPLÒM yo fè pou Ayiti?
  2. Kisa pifò moun ki gen DIPLÒM kontribye nan bati yon nouvèl sosyete ayisyèn?

Nou te ka kontinye, poze yon seri kesyon ki an rapò ak tèm n ap debat la, youn ki enpòtan si nou ta vle antre pi fon nan MISYON «sitwayen ki letre a».

Jodiya, li pa etonan pou anpil nan nou tande «AYISYEN KI LETRE YO PLIS KONTRIBYE NAN DEKADANS AYITI». Nou te ka sètènman antre an detay ak kesyon sa a, devlope tout yon filozofi apati «Reyalite Ayisyèn lan». Yon entelektyèl ayisyen byen koni (yon òm de syans e lèt), an palan de Dtè Jean METELLUS, yon pwofesè medsin retrete ki t ap anseye nan prestijye College de France a Pari e youn nan ekriven Ayiti ki byen koni, fè deklarasyon sa a: «L'enseignement en Haïti, n'a jamis franchement préoccupé les élites. Il a toujours été un cheval de bataille des candidats à la présidence. Mais les hommes au pouvoir oublient tès vite leurs promesses. C'est l'une des raisons pour les quelles Haïti reste l'un des pays où l'anaphabétisme sevit de façon dramatique» ( Haïti une nation pathétique ).

Lè nou kòmanse li Konstisyon 1987 la ( ), o Seyè! Li bèl anpil, e nenpòt moun ki ta konnen yon ti kras sou Premye Peyi Nwa Endepandan nan Lemonn ta di: «O! Pèp sa a avanse anpil demokratikman», patikilyèman lè n li atik sou seksyon edikasyon:

Atik 32 : Leta dwe degaje l pou tout moun jwenn bon fòmasyon. Leta fèt pou li kontwole, si yo respekte dwa sa a. Se yon dwa tout moun genyen ni pou lespri yo an fòm, ni pou yo an fòm. Ni pou yo kapab aprann mache dwa, nan lavi a. Ni pou yo kapab aprann byen viv, youn ak lòt. Ni pou yo kapab aprann travay nan avantaj peyi a. Ni pou yo kapab gen yon bon metye nan men yo.

Atik 32-1 : Bon fòmasyon pou tout sitwayen, sou kont Leta ak moun ki alatèt chak zòn peyi a. Se pou yo rive mete lekòl gratis pou tout moun. Se pou yo kontwole si moun k ap fè lekòl yo, alawotè, ni pou lekòl Leta, ni pou lekòl prive.

Atik 32-2 : Premye travay Leta, ak moun ki alatèt chak zòn peyi a, se fè yon jan pou tout moun rive al lekòl. Se sèl jan yo va kapab mete peyi a sou wout pwogrè vre. Tout moun ki vle bay konkou nan travay sa a, fèt pou yo jwenn ankourajman ak avantaj nan men Leta.

Atik 32-3 : Tout timoun dwe fè klas primè yo. Lalwa va di ki pinisyon yo prevwa lè sa pa fèt. Leta dwe bay elèv lekòl primè tout liv ak tou sa ki nesesè pou yo aprann, gratis.

Atik 32-9 : Leta ak moun ki alatèt chak zòn peyi a dwe fè mwayen posib yo, pou tout granmoun nan peyi a, rive konn li fen, e rive konn ekri fen. Yo va ankouraje tout lòt moun ki soti pou yo bay konkou pou sa.

Atik 32-10 : Lajan yon pwofesè dwe touche kòm salè, pou pi piti, dwe sifi pou bezwen l.

Atik 33 : Lekòl pou tout degre konesans, dwe lib. Men, Leta gen pou li kontwole kouman yo sèvi ak dwa sa a.

Bon, kèk kritik ayisyen ta di li bon è toujou paske Konstitisyon sa a poko 100% antre an(n) aplikasyon akoz pouvwa fènwa ki reye toujou sou tè sakre Desalin nan apre Dinasti Duvalier yo. Andotretèm, diktati militè, gè sivil, diktati sivil, «caudillismo», e tout yon rèy tèrè anndan konsèp «pouvwa fènwa».

Kesyon nan pwen #1 ak #2 ta bousòl nou, e se kesyon pou nenpòt moun ki gen DIPLÒM pou ta pran yon moman pou reflechi sou yo. Pa gen anyen mal e absoliman anyen mal lè ou al lekòl, ou travay di pou gen yon diplòm ou plizyè nan nenpòt disiplin. Men, kisa ou pral fè vizavi kominote /peyi ou nan sans sa a apre w fin resevwa yo? Èske w jis pral kwoke yon an panno lakay ou, nan ofis ou pou enpresyone moun ? Li bon ke w genyen sèten kalifikasyon e li bon pou moun konn sa, men ki vizyon ou nan sans chanje kominote /peyi ou pou l vin pi bon ak tout konesans ou ranmase yo?

Sosyete nou an se youn ki trè egoyis, e mwen dwe di san oken dout ke entelektyèl nou yo kontribye anpil nan soudevlopman peyi nou, e nan tout pwoblèm li. Sa se pa yon bagay nouvo pou kèk nan nou k ap eseye di laverite, menm si sa se yon gwo ris pafwa. Lè nou retounen nan listwa, se toujou menm chanson an, menm tango a depi apre endepandans Ayiti kote PIFÒ entelektyèl ayisyen, apre yo retounen sot Ewòp, pa fè ANYEN ki pou ta chanje sosyete nou an oubyen pou ta genyen yon efè POZITIF sou li. Yo gen yon elit ki pa vo anyen ki pa gen yon vizyon ni akoutèm ni alontèm pou devlopman peyi a.

Entelektyèl DWE pran pozisyon lè peyi yo an danje. Yo dwe fè tande vwa yo lè peyi yo ap travèse pwoblèm. Ayiti nan pwoblèm jodiya sou yon twazyèm OKIPASYON vizyèl e sa ki pi tris la, ane bisantnè endepandans li lè tout moun ta dwe ini yo pou selebre ak jwa e ak lanmou yon tèl moman. Jiskaprezan pesonn poko konnen konbyen tan sa ap dire oubyen kisa sa pral pote e ki efè sa pral genyen sou jenerasyon ki gen pou vini yo. Nan moman sa a, nou ka sèlman devine, kontinye devine.

Si jodiya nou okipe, vrèmanvre se pa fòt Etazini, Kanada ak Lafrans men pito se fòt entelektyèl, frè nou yo ak anpil politisyen oubyen swadizan «lidè» ki envite yo fè sa an premye lye pou pwòp enterè yo. Men an menm tan, (sa ki envite yo) yo anbarase nan yon fason akoz de sa yo te atann avan. Kounyeya si yo entelijan ase, yo ta dwe reflechi sou gou okipasyon an. Ala yon move paryaj yo fè! Se pa fòt peyizan ayisyen yo, madyan yo, ti machann yo, iletre yo, timoun inosan yo k ap dòmi nan lari Pòtoprens, ti «restavèk yo» ki nan esklavay anndan kay atravè peyi a pandan tout vi yo oubyen tout sa yo ki san pouvwa ki manm sosyete kowonpi nou an tou. Se pa fòt yo ditou paske yo pa kapab ni li ni ekri. Yo pa t janm pase lekòl. Yo pa kapab al Wachington pou lòbi nan lang anglè. Yo pa ka pale ni fransè ni anglè pou ta an kontak avèk Kominote Entènasyonal la ki pretann l ap ede Ayiti atravè Nasyonzini ki san pouvwa. Men yo pa avèg. Yo esperyanse reyalite ayisyèn lan chak jou Bondye mete. Yo wè bagay ak de grenn je yo. Yo kapab sèlman esprime yo dèyè pòt ki fèmen ak kèk zanmi pwòch ou oubyen vwazen.

Kisa pifò nan entelektyèl nou yo fè jounen jodiya nan pwosesis pou DEKOLONIZE Ayiti menm jan zansèt nou yo te fè desanzan de sa? Repons lan: grate santi oubyen anyen e absoliman anyen. Sa a se reyalite ki devan je nou, yon miwa kote n ap gade tèt nou ladan l, e yon moso nan Reyalite Ayisyèn nan. Kilès ki kapab pale de kondisyon mòg Lopital Jeneral (kote plizyèn santèn kadav tonbe an pouriti; pami yo, kadav anpil sitwayen inosan zam blayi ane sa a, kadav sa yo k mouri akoz swen medikal yo pa jwenn)? Si sèlman mòg la te ka pale… Si sèlman ravin sa yon an zòn Pòtoprens yo ak kò san tèt te ka pale… Si sèlman chen lamègzo ki grangou k ap frite nan lari lajounen kou lannuit dèyè yon zo san vyann te ka pale… Si sèlman temwen bouch be yo ta di nou ak tout lemonn tande vwa chokan yo de kisa yo pèsevwa… Si sèlman Bondye te ka pale dirèk dirèk ak nou pou l di nou tout verite… Kilès ki ka pale de vyolasyon dwa moun ki blayi depi kòmansman mwa mas 2004? Kilès ki kapab pale de timoun inosan k ap dòmi nan lari ke gwoup bandi ame touye san rezon nan pwosesis netwayaj la? Kilès ki ka pale de kondisyon prizonye yo ki nan prison depi mwa mas ap viv san yo pa janm wè yon jij? Kilès ki ka pale de vrè misyon sòlda Nasyonzini yo k ap fè parad nan Pòtoprens ak lòt kote nan peyi a? Èske vrèmanvre y ap fè yon bagay pou ede pèp la lè Pòtoprens vin tounen yon Bagdad oubyen èske yo jis an vakans la, ap kontante bèl tanperati peyi a epi pran tout kalite plezi? Sa k pase moun ki gen anpil diplòm yo nan inivèsite lòt bò dlo? Sa yo ki rezide nan Dyaspora a? Yo mouri? Yo avèg? Èske yo ka pale? Èske yo ka panse? Èske yo ka ekri vrèman? Lè m panse a tout koze sa yo, sa te enspire m ekri «Nos intellectuels dans l'Histoire Dayiti». Bòn OKIPASYON pou sa yo ki di l byenveni! Bòn ane 2005 a tout sa yo k ap panse a labirent politik Ayiti ye a e ki meyè fason pou soti ladan.




Lemane VAILLANT: Dévrions-nous choisir Polydor ou Pyram (de Pèlin têt) comme notre Leader en Haiti?  La grande question, camarade Emmanuel Vedrine!

E. W. VEDRINE: Vaillant, on est au XXIème siècle. On parlait déjà du XVIIIème siècle comme siècle du LUMIÈRE. Donc, on ne vit plus dans les ténèbres. Nous, qui vivons maintenant, sommes peut-être les plus chanceux du globe de voir les merveilles de la HAUTE technologie, de l'internet... Sans doute vous avez été au Japon (comme observateur de leur civilisation / sagesse / techonologie). Chapeau bas pour ce grand peuple! Nous dévons suivre leur modèle avec fierté. Un de mes amis japonais m'a dit que le Japon était comme Ayiti après la Deuxième Guerre Mondiale (en terme de sous-développement).

Pensez-vous que les analphabètes d'Ayiti aimeraient avoir un autre ANALPHABÈTE comme leur chef d'état en plein XXIème siècle? Je le doute fortement. Mais ils ne sont pas bêtes! Ils ont un haut niveau de réflection, il peuvent réfléchir (comme on peut voir dans beaucoup d'œuvres littéraires et historiques) et ils ont une idée (indirecte) de la MONDIALISATION. Il faut rélire le fond de mon article et commenter la-dessus pour dire au grand public ce que vous en pensez.

Nous, lecteurs, savons qu'il existe déjà certain rapport entre la pièce de Frankétienne (écrit sous la dictature du p'tit bon homme) et mon article (écrit en déc. 2004). En même temps, je dois dire qu'il existe aussi quelques intellectuels Ayisiens serieux qui aimeraient voir un changement radical pour Ayiti et pour le prestige de tous les Ayisiens. Ils ne sont pas au pouvoir; en outre, beaucoup d'entre eux ne caressent pas ce rêve non plus. Ce qu'il faut c'est UNE PRISE DE CONSCIENCE de la part de nos intellectuels, une prise de conscience de la Réalite Haitienne et en même temps voir ce qu'ils peuvent faire, comment ils peuvent contribuer au développement du pays pour le bien-être de tous ses fils.

Nous avons déjà trop de gens MÉDIOCRES comme leaders et dans notre société (ça ne veut pas dire pour autant qu'ils n'ont pas été à l'école, mais c'est la façon dont ils gèrent les affaires du pays, la façon dont ils font les choses). Pourtant, ils savent bien comment piller les caisses de l'État, comment fabriquer des chèques zonbis, comment tromper les gens. Je suis sûr que vous avez lu avec appétit une histoire louche qu'un diplomate Ayisien (en poste en Suisse) vient de révéler sur l'internet cette semaine concernant des detournements de fonds (il montre qu'il veut voir un changement et que les choses ne peuvent pas continuer ainsi - ça, c'est «une prise de conscience») et cette prise de conscience lui a couté sa révocation. Les gens qui sont actuellement au pouvoir en Ayiti parlent de corruption lavalassienne, les anciens lavalassiens parlent de corruption duvalierienne. Men se wete chat mete mimi.

Nos ancêtres qui ont fait la Revolution de 1803 n'ont pas même eu la chance de décrocher le Certificat d'Études Primaires mais n'ont-ils pas fait des merveilles dans notre glorieuse histoire? En même temps, on ne vit pas au temps de ces héros, on est au XXIème siècle comme j'ai dit avant. Je suis sûr que vous avez, en maintes fois, lu le concepte «CIVILISATION vs. BARBARIE», l'un des conceptes qui domine l'histoire politique de l'Amérique Latine. Ayiti n'est pas exclu de ce grand concepte dévéloppé dans le contexte politique de notre continent.



Lemane VAILLANT: Èske nou dwe chwazi Polydor oubyen Pyram (re: Pèlin têt ) pou lidè nou an(n) Ayiti?  Gwo kesyon pou kanmarad Emmanuel Vedrine!

E. W. VEDRINE: Vaillant, nou nan XXI nyèm syèk. Yo pale deja de XVIII nyèm syèk kòm «siècle de LUMIÈRE». Donk, nou p ap viv ankò nan tenèb. Nou menm k ap viv kounyeya, petèt se nou menm ki pi chanse sou glòb la pou wè mèvèy HOT teknoloji, entènèt la. San dout ou vizite Japon (kòm obsèvatè sivilizasyon / sajès / teknoloji yo). Chapo ba pou gran pèp sa a! Nou dwe suiv modèl yo ak fyète. Youn nan zanmi japonè m yo di m ke Japon te tankou Ayiti apre Dezyèm Gè Mondyal (an tèm soudevlopman).

Ou panse analfabèt ki an(n) Ayiti yo ta renmen wè yon lòt ANALFABÈT kòm chèf leta XXInyèm syèk la? Mwen doute sa anpil. Men yo pa bèt! Yo gen yon wo nivo refleksyon, yo ka reflechi (kòm nou ka wè nan anpil nan zèv literè ak istorik yo) e yo gen yon ide (endirèk) de MONDYALIZASYON. Fò w reli fondèt atik mwen an epi kòmante sou sa pou di gran piblik la sa ou panse.

Nou menm, lektè, nou konnen ke gen deja yon rapò ant pyès Frankétienne nan (ki ekri sou diktati ti nonm nan) ak atik pa m nan (ki ekri an des.. 2004). An menm tan, mwen di ke gen tou kèk entelektyèl Ayisyen serye ki ta renmen wè yon chanjman radikal pou Ayiti e pou prestij tout Ayisyen. Moun sa yo pa sou pouvwa, e anpil nan yo pa reve sa nonplis. Sa k nesesè se yon PRIZDEKONSYANS lakay entelektyèl nou yo, yon prizdekonsyans de Reyalite Ayisyèn nan e an menm tan wè kisa yo ka fè, kijan yo kapab kontribye nan devlopman peyi a pou byennèt tout pitit li yo.

Nou gen twòp MEDYÒK deja kòm lidè e nan (sa pa vle di pou otan ke yo pa t pase lekòl, men se fason yo jere afè peyi a, fason yo fè bagay yo). Poutan, yo konnen byen kijan pou piye kès leta, kijan pou fabrike chèk zonbi, kijan pou twonpe moun. Mwen pa gen gen dout ke w li deja avèk apeti yon istwa louch yon diplomat Ayisyen (ki an pòs Lasuis) sot revele sou entènèt la semèn sa a, konsènan detounman fon (li montre ke l ta renmen wè yon chanjman e ke bagay yo pa ka kontinye konsa, donk sa se yon «prizdekonsyans») e prizdekonsyans sa a te koute revokasyon l. Moun ki sou pouvwa aktyèlman an(n) Ayiti yo pale de koripsyon lavalasyen, ansyen lavalasyen yo pale de koripsyon divalyeris. Men se wete chat mete mimi .

Zansèt nou yo ki te fè Revolisyon 1803 a pa t gen chans gen okenn diplòm, pa menm Certificat d'Études Primaires men èske yo pa t fè mèvèy nan bèl istwa nou ki gen laglwa? An menm tan, nou p ap viv nan tan ewo sa yo, nou nan XXInyèm syèk kòm mwen di avan. Mwen pa gen dout ke ou, plizyè fwa, li konsèp «SIVILIZASYON vs. BARBARI», youn nan konsèp ki domine istwa politik Amerik Latin. Ayiti pa eskli nan gran konsèp sa a ki devlope nan konsèp politik kontinan nou an.

boule   boule   boule 

Emmanuel W. Védrine
P.O.B. 255962
Dorchester, MA 02125-5110 (U.S)
evedrine@hotmail.com, e_vedrine@yahoo.com

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