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The Art of African Revolution

Doumafis Lafontan


As an author, writing about Ayiti carries over 500 years History that most Ayisyen (Haitians) want to change. A view, common among social change theorists, suggests any type of mutation must begin with the person that seeks it. The necessity of this first step makes clear the mission that any Haitian attempting systemic transformation must embrace. Unlike the road-less traveled, many Haitians have been successful, changing their vocations, to leading change. The aim of this brief text is to underlie the essential characteristics of this revolution.


Ayiti, Romanticized Haiti, is an exact description of the surface and general appearance of the island, which in the Taino language means a land of mountains. Moreover, Haiti is a land that dates to the Cretaceous period, a finding that resulted from years of research Ernst Mathurin, MD and Ginette Mathurin undertook to learn about the natural resources (e.g., minerals like quartz) from the impact with an asteroid that hit the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, forming what is today called the Chicxulub impact crater-space circa 65 million years ago (Kring et al, 1994, Science & Vie, 1994).

“The Cretaceous is defined as the period between 145.5 and 65.5 million years ago, the last period of the Mesozoic Era, following the Jurassic and ending with the extinction of the dinosaurs (except birds). By the beginning of the Cretaceous, the supercontinent Pangea was already rifting apart, and by the mid-Cretaceous, it had split into several smaller continents. This created large-scale geographic isolation, causing a divergence in evolution of all land-based life for the two new land-masses. The rifting apart also generated extensive new coastlines, and a corresponding increase in the available near-shore habitat. Additionally, seasons began to grow more pronounced as the global climate became cooler. Forests evolved to look similar to present day forests, with oaks, hickories, and magnolias becoming common in North America by the end of the Cretaceous. It has been estimated that half of the world's species went extinct at about this time, but no accurate species count exists for all groups of organisms. Some have argued that many of the species to go extinct did so before the impact, perhaps because of environmental changes occurring at this time. Whatever its cause, this extinction event marks the end of the Cretaceous Period and of the Mesozoic Era. The Cretaceous was thus the time in which life as it now exists on Earth came together1.”

In this paper, this writer will seek to articulate the characteristics of Haiti “lespri” (the spirit) brought independent of time that the ancestors conceived as their way of life, as if they were partaking of their milieu and the implicate meaning, expressed in Haitian Kreyòl as “Linivè se yon miliye revelasyon e don,” (my italic). Indeed, upon reviewing the Literature on Haiti, pre-1492, the findings indicates clearly that the inhabitants grasped the meaningful relationship of their milieu. And further the inhabitants of Haiti did not see their milieu as a place to dominate, exploit, and/or subjugate each other (Price-Mars, 1998; Desquiron, 1990; Hurbon, 1987). According to Beard, the original inhabitants of Haiti, the Tainos and Arawaks, maintained only a defensive posture against invaders and marauders.

The Zero-Sum Game

Alas, Haitians have experienced a 500+-year History that an overwhelming number of them have sought to change, but the current relations of power have not favored any alteration to that History. It then follows the generally accepted description of History; that is, social groups rather classes fighting against each other, fits the facts and personages that shaped the History that most Haitians want to let go. The most vivid illustration of this demand to break with the past occurred circa 1986 when the statue of Christopher Columbus was thrown to the bottom of the sea. However, this development remains obscure rather the narrative has been about slavery and the masters. Hence Haitians have not fully accepted the Native Folk of Haiti as a segment of the population of the world that successfully let go of Colonialism, which Colonists had tried to impose on them. And further having gone beyond Colonialism they laid the foundation for an Independent Nation that held freedom as evidence for any person fleeing slavery and tyranny anywhere in the world. This point will become clearer as the writing unfolds.

Today, it is evident that most Haitians are not living to this highest ideal of a human being. But this deception is not particular to Haitians since the inhabitants of France and United States (U.S.) that achieved regime change respectively in 1776 and 1789 have not upheld this principle either because both countries still maintain Colonies throughout the Caribbean. This paradox must be put in perspective with a particular emphasis on the exclusionary nature that serves as the basis of U.S society. Although the legal framework of equal of opportunity has allowed each social groups to find its respective place; nonetheless, with the highest rate of incarceration among all nations throughout the world, the U.S. is far from being the bastion of freedom that it claims. On further analysis, racism has been a constant feature of this society. For instance, most leading Human Rights advocates, lawyers and policy-makers consider U.S. Immigration, vis-à-vis Haitians seeking refuge and/or asylum, to be racist. In most of these cases, the enforcement of Immigration policies has lead to the deportation and/or incarceration of thousands of Haitians at Guantanamo and/or other U.S. federal prisons based on a “Wet food, dry foot’ policy.

This twist must be faith that certain representatives of various sectors in and/or outside of Haiti accept the U.S. France, Canada, etc. as the free world, which is a situation that some Haitians aptly describe: “devan pòt tounen dèyè pòt” (the back door has become the front door). This sort of irony is no small feat; therefore, it is necessary to offer a brief explanation on how Haitians came to submit to the oppressor as savior. Undoubtedly, internalized oppression is so subtle that the oppressed of Haiti fail to see it as the result of alienation from elitist teaching that The Brothers of the Christian Instruction taught in class-rooms to school-age children (5 to 11 years old). In other word, certain members of the black military elite such as Henri Christophe and Alexandre Petion that fought and/or supported the War that led to the Independence imposed western culture on the majority masses that by and large self-identify as Ginen meaning African. For instance, following the Independence the national education system remained in the hands of French teachers; in 1806 Jean-Jacques Dessalines, Founder of the Independence, was killed for attempting to develop a cadastre for the implementation of land reform; the Republic was then adopted as the preferred system of governance; in 1825 total capitulation occurred with the agreement to pay an indemnity to France; in 1860 the Concordat was signed with the Vatican2; in 1915 Haiti completely lost its Independence, a situation that continues to this day and; finally,  each event and/or development at the national level continues to be celebrated with a Catholic mass.

This reversal of fortune occurred even though Boisrond Tonnerre, Secretary of Dessalines, warned that “the French name continues to darken our counties” (Laroche, 1981). It is no surprise then that Haiti today is associated with all types of superstition, perversion, deprivation, violence, vagabond, and self-destruction with a form of slavery called “Reste-Avec” (child slavery). As illustrated above, the oppressor’s form, institution, and discourse both by definition and value can never lead the oppressed to achieve autonomous thought, culture, and development, or “lespri,” meaning thinking goes-ahead. Is it not evident that coup d’état, foreign mission, military occupation, and decadence have been recurrent themes since the days of Toussaint L’Ouverture (e.g., L’Affaire Vilatte, March 20, 1796).

By a revision of history some prominent Haitian, African and foreign scholars continue to write Toussaint L’Ouverture is the Precursor of the Independence when nothing could be further from the truth. To the extent that the finding of Aimée Cesaire on Toussaint L’Ouverture is accurate he is Precursor of the Commonwealth (e.g., the foreign relations established between England and Canada as well as the other English speaking countries of the Caribbean). Emphasis must be placed on this fallacy of the Precursor of the Independence because it is imperative for Haitians to examine the thought that moved Toussaint L’Ouverture, to join the military group George Biassou led after Bookman Dutty, the leader of the 1791 General Revolt, had been beheaded by the Colonists (James, 1963).

Toussaint L’Ouverture is a pure product of a particular space-time. It means reading Abbé Reynal, Toussaint L’Ouverture became the embodiment of the “Speculative Thought” (Alexis, 1956) of Abbey Reynal who predicted a hero would rise to take up the cause of the slaves (Beard, 1863). It must be pointed out; Toussaint L’Ouverture did not make this decision to join the Revolt of 1791 while sharing the condition of the slaves since he had occupied several important functions on his master’s property, including ownership of a farm worked by slaves (Beard, 1863). And further, his contemporaries reported that Toussaint L’Ouverture was rich, and the literature shows he was well educated. For instance, James wrote, upon assuming leadership of Saint Domingue, Toussaint L’Ouverture would often speak Latin to certain individuals that came to him asking for work.

The fact is Tousssaint L’Ouverture was able to rise as far as Speculative Thought could take him. In 1801, when he undertook to provide Saint Domingue its own law he could not conceive an Independent country. For example, when the emissary he delegated to deliver the Constitution to Napoleon asked him to explain the relation of power between France and Saint Domingue, in light of this new Constitution, he articulated the system Aimée Césaire called “Dominion and/or Commonwealth.” Moreover, it must be explained, the “Free Trade” (Beard, 1863) clause he had inserted in the Constitution of 1801 was an effort to counter the Exclusive Accord France had imposed on Saint Domingue. The conclusion James drew, “With the ascendance of Toussaint L’Ouverture to the highest position in Saint Domingue the ‘Black Code’ had finally been implemented” is correct. The Black Code was an edict that Louix XIV, King of France, issued in 1685 to make Saint Domingue humane with each class occupying its own stratum. In spite of these achievements; that is, keeping Saint Domingue for France, protecting private property right, having General Moise, his nephew killed, and repressing the same people that formed his power-base, the reform of Saint Domingue that Toussaint L’Ouverture had undertaken amounted to a Zero Sum competition with the oppressor.

This blood sport, beginning with the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492, is still played today. The struggle for power that led to the military occupation of Haiti in 2004 the Year of the Bicentennial of the Independence is the best example of the continuation of this Zero Sum game.

Walking the way of the ancestors 

Having provided a glimpse of the 500+-Year History that the majority of Haitians want to leave behind in the dustbin, it is proper to articulate some of the concrete terms of Liberty, Freedom, and Independence, keeping in mind that the struggle against Liberticide3 started in Africa. It has been the continuous struggle of Freedom Fighters (i.e., Taharqa, Kaonabo, Anacaona, Èzili, Hatuey, Enriquillo, Padrejean, Mackandal, Macaya, Bookman, Dessalines et al) to ensure the perpetual return of life among the natives of Africa and Haiti. Freedom, in the making of independent nations, prevents the living from becoming enslaved, social isolates, and/or zombies. Keeping freedom is the way of the ancestors (i.e., Arada, Awusa, Gede, Ibo, Kongo, Kush, Mandeng Nago, Nubian, Peul, Taino, Arawak, and Petro), this writer has observed over years of research on Haiti, which Native Folk must continue in order to make their way on earth.

In his seminal essay, Les Marrons de la Liberte, Jean Fourchard only grasped the elementary level of this movement of Freedom that the Negritude writers (e.g., Cesaire, Senghor, Damas et al) sought to describe by the brilliant new poems they wrote. Reading Fouchard this writer gets the vivid image of the light that these real Freedom Fighters shined on Colonialism, descending from their free communities perched “dèyè mòn” (behind mountains) torches clasped in hands, they represented the real and constant threat to the existence of the Colonists. Whereas the different groups of affranchised and slaves (e.g., Vincent Ogé, Jean-Baptiste Chavannes et al), mentioned earlier, would often put down their weapons to negotiate (James, 1863), these relentless Freedom Fighters never stopped their triumphant run to Independence (Carruthers, 1985).

While the slave narrative continues to occupy a prominent place among essayists, this lineage of the ancestors that chose to live in free communities remains incomprehensible. Writing about this achievement Jacques Stephen Alexis named it the Confluence of Cultures; that is, Indigenous Folk from two regions of the world that united. It must be noted from the shock of Colonization, religious Syncretism is the other phenomenon that has received more attention. On the one hand, syncretism resulted from the imposition of European culture, religion, history and; on the other hand, the Confluence of Cultures unfolded from the ancestors being conscious that they faced a common enemy, and to defeat this enemy required “Points of Unity4” on self-defense, cooperation, autonomy, and so on. It is that phase, the attainment of Liberty over the area where they lived, which inspired the slaves to support the Independence and; also, gave them the confidence that it was possible to live without the Colonists. Yet eliminating the condition that permeated slavery from their midst, meaning the achievement of Liberty alone could not have led to the Independence of Haiti, which in its Constitution of 1805 established Freedom for all the different groups regardless of color, creed, national origin, etc. For instance, studies on the cases of the Kilombos in Brazil, and the Maroons in Jamaica show that neither group succeeded to expand beyond the territories that they had liberated from their respective Colonizer (Nicholls, 1979).

This expansion of Liberty to a national programme indicates the phase that differentiates the Independence of Haiti from any other liberation struggle against Colonization. Let us recall that the ancestors were physically carrying torches to light their way out of Saint Domingue. This way, it can be said with certainty, they were able to internalize their Freedom. It means Liberty had become enshrined in their hearts that called them to Freedom as Bookman reminded them on that fateful evening that preceded the War of Independence. Lekòl Ayisyen (The Haitian School) has always maintained Independence was the original objective of these Freedom Fighters (Fouchard, 1988). Clearly speaking, this writer calls into question the notion that Haiti stands “nan kafou” (at the crossroads) because it is woefully erroneous since Legba is only a symbol of indeterminacy (Gates, 1988). Thus this writer cannot fathom at the Battle of Vertieres in November 1803, Dessalines, and his high command having any confusion on the way. General Capois is forever idolized for his perfect execution of the order from Dessalines to take over the trenches the enemy had built. The repeated command of General Capois to his troops: “An Avan” (Forward) will be remembered forever by all Freedom Fighters. More than a century later, Kwame Nkrumah, President of Ghana, Sekou Toure, President of Guinée, and Kwame Toure, the initiator of Black Power, made “Forward Ever Backward Never” the central theme of the All African People’s Revolutionary Party (AAPRP).

This text is as much about Haiti as it is about this writer (i.e., dialectic); that is, this writer is no longer explaining living in coincidence with the island of Haiti whose formation, elevation, and organization signify a singularity neither created, nor destroyed. It means this writer comprehends the “Biological Meme” (Price-Mars, 1998 and Blackmore, 1999); therefore, he seeks to expound on the next phase so essential to grasp, that which is unique, authentic and original within each one. In signifying, to grasp this original objective Haitians must step outside of the Story of Creation (i.e., The Bible) that emphasizes the God of Abraham, the Alpha, Omega, Jesus Christ, etc. Moving beyond the discursive narration on the history of the forces of good and evil, he explains this popular saying of Haitians “Pale Fransè pa vle di Lespri” (Speaking French does not mean thinking-goes-ahead) by writing “Outside the Discourse” (Foucault) with its antagonist classes of bourgeoisie, financier, proletariat and/or lumpen-proletariat. The originality and uniqueness that a person defines and/or redefines as genuine talent (i.e., gift, ability, aptitude, genius, etc.) remarkable to him/her is not definitive. Even though attaining this essential development stage leads a person to exert the Quintessential Leadership, which the community cherishes to the point that after s/he reaches the afterlife that which made him/her unique the community celebrates in memoriam as “mistè” (mystery), this quintessence must not be confounded with leadership based on the most followers and/or the most able by Liberals and/or Nationalists. Rather Quintessential Leadership means to foster the characteristics of the community independent of time that on a person are eternal. In this context, becoming one-self is not a static state of being rather that, which must be considered, is the dynamic manner continuing beyond the person, self and/or one-self, within this uninterrupted movement. It is thus that the departed return to partake of daily activities; for example, at the level of the family, it is common for some “lwa” (mystical personage) to suddenly appear, inquire about the well-being of loved ones, provide advice on necessary steps to take, dispense treatment, and so on.

Many years ago, Dessalines promulgated the fundamental “lwa” (law) of the Nanchon Ayisyen (Haitian Kingdom); that is, “The white man can never take on the titles of ‘Mèt e Pwopriyetè’ (Educator and Owner).” It means freedom and land intertwine; therefore, without ownership the inhabitants of Haiti will not be free and the Independence will be lost. Although the nation found its natural law, the state has failed to apply this law throughout the different spheres of the Haitian society (Alexis, 1956). It then follows every nation has a story to tell; yet Price-Mars found: “Se sa mwen t ale wè, yo ban m on ti kout pye mwen tonbe la” (That which I went to see I have returned to tell [my italic]), this manner Haitians finish their stories, is unique among story tellers. And further, Price-Mars proposed this uniqueness as the starting point to comprehend Haitian rather Ginen identity. The option to change and/or to improve this legacy is resolved; that is, concrete steps must be taken to go beyond the unique like the self and/or identity. Dèyè mòn gen mòn (mountains behind mountains); it is like, an Asian story Ming Chang told this writer: “Once upon a time lived a man who thought he had achieved the greatest height only to realize with chagrin he got as far as Buddha’s Divine Palms (my italic).

This partaking of life; like the Ankh key of humility, being humble, listening to praise and/or blame with open mind, heart light like feather, means one-self. Every “moun andewò” (country folk) knows that “jou bare Rara limyè pa kouri pi vit” (light does not speed faster than Rara) rather it is like “lawouze taye Banda toutotan solèy pa leve” (the dance of the dew until sunshine) over the distance, bees dancing beyond the land flowing with milk and honey. Walking the way of the ancestors is represented to show the view that light traveling in a vacuum is bounded to the prism that red and blue suggest, like the departure at “mòn wouj” (red mountain) and the return to the native land, “anba dlo ble” (under blue water). Evidently, becoming mistè is no mystery at all; it is simply living by this principle to maintain the Independence that guarantees the freedom of the population.

Beyond the beginning and the end there is no single event to the present that must be told rather it is mountains behind mountains. For example, at Cap-Francais (the main commune of the Central Region) on August 23, 1791 Bookman, Gran Guiton, Defile, Toya, Desalin et al led a key battle in the War of Independence. Bookman fought the Colonists to the death in the process Cap-Francais nearly burned to the ground. It is evident, with Dessalines came to pass the efforts of the ancestors, to exterminate that “chòche” (sorcerer), expressed in the many songs such as:

“E! E! E! Bomba, En, En
Kanga bafio te
Kanga moun de le
Kanga do ki la
Kanga li” (Cesaire, 1981).

There was this departure, which subsequently led to this epic day that had “Hegel been in the vicinity of Vertieres, he would have seen, riding the spirit on General Capois whose horse fell without stopping the run to Independence on November 18, 1803” (Laroche 1981). Let us recall this historic day, the heroes of the War of Independence laid to rest slavery once and for all. On top of the front wall, leading to the entrance of La Crète-a-Pierrot, Dessalines, standing next to a barrel of gun powder with a torch in his hand, announced:

“The French will attempt to enter the fort. I only want freedom fighters around me. If anyone among you wishes to be enslaved leave immediately. I will blow up this fort if one French soldier enters. The soldiers in unison: “N ap mouri pou libète” (we shall die for liberty [James, 1963]).

Of this solemn day, writers report that the 1,200 troops, under the command of Dessalines, outnumbered by 12,000 French soldiers, including Alexandre Petion, made their way out of La Crète-a-Pierrot (a military fort) with more than half of the troops; while the French Expeditionary Army lost 2,000 soldiers, including Dugua, Chief of Staff. And further at La Crète-a-Pierort, Sanite Belair, Marie-Jeanne, and countless other women soldiers, were noted for their bravery, fighting shoulders to shoulders with their male counterparts. It is marvelous that the “Armée Indigene5” did not depend on what might have happened. Therefore, the Independence is true over all conditions; that is, Saint Domingue changed by the violence of Vengeance against the Colonists for the genocide they committed on the Tainos, and Arawaks; the crimes against humanity they perpetrated on the Africans; and the lies they told about Africa. It is clear that if this paradigm shift had not occurred, the Liberticides would have made slavery a permanent human condition.

In the final analysis, it is to these personages, Taharqa, Kaonabo, Anakaona, Hatuey, Enriquillo, Èzili, Padrejean, Mackandal, Macaya, Bookman, Dessalines, Lumumba, Nrumah, Sankara, Cabral et al, and the fact that they fought to end the History of Conquest (i.e., subjugation, exploitation, and domination of Africans that originated from Mesopotamia reported to be the birthplace of civilization by the Assyrians circa 525 BCE followed by the Greeks, Romans, Portuguese, Spanish, French, Dutch, and British), Haitians like (Feliks Moriso Lewa, Maurice Sixto, Paul Laraque, Anil Louis-Juste), Anthony Phelps, Bayyinah Belo, Èzili Dantò, Manzè, Sanba et al, walking the way of the ancestors, owe their life and character.

The art of African Revolution

Today, transformation occurs, the moment Ginen, partaking of the national culture, undertakes the search of intrinsic principles (e.g. fundamental assumption, ethical standard, characteristic ingredient). Many years ago, Price-Mars wrote: Lekòl Ayisyen does not deny the individuality of a person; that is, to the extent this person is able to present the advantages of the community, Haiti, s/he is then considered a genius. Cultural critique such as Lilas Desquiron, Cheik Anta Diop, Antenor Firmin, Laennec Hurbon, and; specifically, Susan Blackmore and Jean Price-Mars wrote extensively on the Biological Meme to maintain social stability. In the African Cosmogony it is believed that with the advent of Organization, Administration and Lespri, human beings no longer live in coincidence with nature. This proposition of a Meme, as a second replicator besides the gene for itself, must be explored further because it is becoming evident that the lone, economic Man could not have been able to make it on his own. In light of the crises of Capitalism (i.e., Neo-Liberalism, Urbanization, and Terrorism) the “Depassement” (going beyond) of this system is necessarily related to the self and/or one-self. This Depassement implies a qualitative change that must not be confused with progress; that is, as the existing paradigm unfolds to the new model, with some minor aspect remaining (Alexis, 1956), it enfolds its next replica in this uninterrupted process (my italic).

It then follows Haitians must accept the African Revolution as necessary to effectively overcome the circumstances of nature, history, economic Man and so on. Therefore, to influence and change the condition programmed from the foreign shores, Haitians must follow the lead of the African Freedom Fighters. As mentioned in the Literature, with your body you make the world. “Body of the body of Africa, moving to the movement of Africa” (Cesaire, 1983). Meaning Haitians must bear (i.e., carry, produce, head in particular direction, etc.) the desired outcomes, which easily could be created, formed, designed, etc. And the first step was the reversal of the Language from French to Kreyòl taught to school-age children and; as the second step, these children must go to the community, resolved to improve the standards of living, while residing, working and playing with the majority masses (my italic). This paradigm shift reinforces the popular saying: “se pa maji, se don” (talent is non magical); that is, the multiplying effect of that which each Haitian must do to feed, heal, educate millions of babies, children, youth, and elders.

Having pointed out the uninterrupted movement of our legacy and tradition withers away the necessity to write the statements of need for financing, philanthropy, charity, aid and humanitarian assistance, in collaboration with the entrepreneurs, policy-makers, and aid-workers. Haiti might be deforested and eroded it then becomes an oasis with Haitians applying the laws of agriculture. And with the current gold rush, the foreign companies could come to dig for gold, but establishing the ownership and national distribution of these resources is necessary; otherwise, Haitians will remain stuck in the Third Sector that permeates dependence, misery, poverty, debt, inequity, etc. With national ownership of the distribution of the resources and the means for every able-bodied Haitian to produce, while each one shows the set of skills represented in the precise cryptic writing from the unbroken memory of Africans, and for each one to take the steps so necessary to propagate meaning, energy, work, and the creativity for the artistic output, as well as its other forms such as games, mathematics, and science, Haiti could easily become an oasis. This is the prism to perceive Haiti exponentially abundant. In concrete terms, there is not one L’Ouverture, instead there are perpendicular, vertical, horizontal, and/or circular openings that provide varied mirror images from those different angles. This explanation takes into account all relationships, using the number of its exponents, to grow rapidly. It means as science makes discoveries, such as the multi-relations in mathematics, so too the art does change Haiti creatively.

The following paragraph is postulated, in accord with David Bohm’s proposal there is no plan for change, even though there are prominent thinkers such as Jacques Stephen Alexis, Paul Laraque et al who maintain Marxism6 changed society and life is the coming transformation. Moreover, on knowledge the aesthetic is no longer the focus; rather an “Atis/Sanba” (Artist) must “Legba” (open the gate) to enlighten life anew, afresh. It means a change of style is a change of life from where the Atis/Sanba et al took form of the primary source. This is a departure, from taste, artistic output to please a sponsor, a reader, and an audience, to see continuously a level of reality and/or dimension of life, changing anew, afresh. Undoubtedly, for Haitians, particularly the majority masses that do not know how to read and write, the primary source is Africa. The few points of Hellenistic7 traits in Vodou simply indicate cultural imposition by force, threat of force, compromise, etc. For instance, in national culture, the kont, song, dance, craft and art are primarily African; in the Kreyòl Language the syntax is African, in Religion the Pantheon of Lwa Vodou is African, in the Community the organization of the family is African, and Ayiti is the first daughter of Africa. The State is the only component that is graft from western Civilization.

It then follows there are some truths that no longer work, such as the First Black Republic, Poorest Country in the western hemisphere, a Basket Case, which every Haitian must let go. And further going beyond the Saint Domingue, and/or one-self, means Haiti remains and in the present she requires the works of every Ginen and African to make it grow abundantly. Once again, this writer must reiterate, scarcity results from a particular opening (i.e., hierarchy), such as the need from which the world is viewed. Hence a change of L’Ouverture is a change of vision, be it Haiti, the continent, etc. The development of Haiti is no longer incumbent on a leader that knows it all, “yon bon papa” (a good father) who has all the ideas, and is the protector of all. This perspective, and/or mind-set has been obsolete since the days of Dessalines who warned the population of Haiti not to depend on a leader, while reminding them that he depended on them during the War of Independence. It then can be proposed shared Quintessential Leadership is the key strategy to winning the competition, which the yearly issued Human Development Index report illustrates, with a clear purpose to continuously improve the lives of Haitians from the low ranking that the Colonists placed them, and the Neo-Liberals seek to maintain them.

Let us consider, this case study, for instance the rank of Haitians earning less than $300.00 per year that are considered the slum-dwellers of Haiti. This is a criterion of poverty that must be debated; that is, what other access do these Haitians, which make a living with this minimal amount of Capital, facilitate? While the question is asked, it must be pointed out during the turbulent years of the democracy movement “chanje Leta, kraze zo, piyajè” (change the state of broken bones and pillage) was the main social demand of the majority Haitians who policy-makers consider poor. In those days, they comprehended the construction of free trade zones to be part of the “Washington Consensus” (Stiglitz, 2003). It is clear the majority masses never advocated changing their way of life with factories built on the parcels of land that provide the basic produce for their daily nutrition intake not based and/or dependent on Capital. Undoubtedly, some key action steps must be taken to improve their living condition by raising life expectancy (i.e., male 59 years, and female 62 years), including the reduction of infant mortality (i.e., 76 deaths per 1000 births), low-birth rate, and illiteracy8. in accordance to the national culture and the science of food. It is therefore wrong for the western leaders, international financiers, and their coterie of assistants to implement a platform-economy model that destroys the eco-system, family farming, agro-culture, and small business, with significant numbers of families dispossessed and displaced to make space for the factories commonly accepted as sweatshops. This Neo-Liberal type of business concocted, at the highest echelon of the “State and Capital Nexus” (Harvey, 2011), deems it necessary to deny the Government of Haiti revenue from tariffs, while permitting large donations of cash to politicians and their favorite charities and causes9. In this scheme, the communal and agrarian way of life is changed through Monetary and Structural Adjustment Policies (SAP) conceived to reprieve the Independence. Verily, the apology by Bill Clinton, former president of the U.S., to Haitians is null and void since he continues to make the same mistake. Clinton, like a maladroit (clumsy) archer, will never have a good grasp of Haiti as he keeps missing the mark. He simply must stop.

At this phase, it is proper to recall the theory that stipulates to shift the paradigm one would have to show the gods intended it, and then the people would have to embrace the change. It is thus that on the island of Haiti, life, as we know it today, bloomed. On this abundant land daily living easily synchronized and work was neither hard, nor tiring. The burden of industry was light and inter-personal relationship was easy. Moreover, the inhabitants revered life; therefore, they spent most of their time giving thanks and praise to the divine ancestors. This life weaved unto the fabric of the community is the way of the ancestors that, in spite of the repeated blows from Conquistadors, Colonists, and Liberticides, has never been severed, broken, and/or ripped apart. Even in cases when the lord and/or lord of lords reign supreme over the realm, court, serfdom, slavery, etc., and the current rule of law established in the doctrine of liberty and theory of check and balance, there will always be, among the indigenous populations, ancestors to guide the individual on the way of life.

It must be noted that the rule mentioned above is intended to point out the monster that bathes in the blood of human beings is hiding in the law. By their laws the western powers put both the guilty and the innocent to death. Thus they go on killing because they do not recognize that the person is sacred. So the leaders of these western powers and their allies are in violation of the person, religion, and god. In a sort, strange, Vodou is a true religion since it does not condone killing among its adherents10. Nonetheless, it is conceded, a call for peace is not articulated for the simple reason it is the sole responsibility of those that are killing to stop. Interestingly, the free world missed an opportunity to exert leadership for peace when its leader was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, but continued to supervise a killing list.

In conclusion, Dessalines’s praxis is proposed to elucidate the original objective and Language linked to the real and social that is different from French, English, Spanish, etc., as means of communication (Glissant, 1981)11. Hence the reader is encouraged to observe this Language clear, unambiguous and direct that does not contain any of the personages and facts of Neo-Colonialism, Neo-Liberalism, and Imperialism. By Dessalines’s praxis in effect slavery has withered away forever and will never return among those walking the way of the ancestors. The lesson learned, from the change that is not the mutation western historians call the General Slave Revolt of 1791; it was just for the ancestors to avenge the wrong of Colonization, the Slave Trade, and the Genocide of the Tainos and Arawaks. Today, Haitians must convey the true qualities, especially the merits, of the ancestors both divine and human throughout the world.

It is this continuum of victory, from the Independence of Ayiti to the African Revolution; this writer went to see he has returned to tell.


  1. http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/mesozoic/cretaceous/cretaceous.php
  2. http://www.concordatwatch.eu/showtopic.php?orgid=847&kb_header_id=858
  3. Those that put on the mantle of freedom to strike deadly blows against liberty) started in Africa
  4. This is emphasized by Confluence, an annual forum held at Kanatsiohareke, New York
  5. Under the leadership of Jean-Jacques Dessalines, the military formation that fought in the War of Independence was called the Indigenous Army
  6. According to Alexis, besides Dessalines, no other person except Karl Marx has done more to liberate the peoples of the world (my italic)
  7. Judeo-Greco-Roman culture, and/or western civilization, etc.
  8. http://www.fco.gov.uk/en/travel-and-living-abroad/travel-advice-by-country/country-profile/north-central-america/haiti/
  9. George Soros, a business partner of Greogry Mews who owns a wharf in the area of Cite Soleil, is a major donor to the Clinton Global Foundation, Partners
  10. Max Beauvoir, Ati National, Haitian Vodou, explains instead of killing, a guilty person is rendered a Zonbi
  11. For more instruction on this perspective of Language, the reader ought to research the findings of Edouard Glissant



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