ALCINDOR, Christian. United States-Haiti Relations From 1957 To 1963: Anticommunism, Nation-building, And Racial Diplomacy In The Age Of National Liberation. Pages: 00402. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: Rutgers The State University of New Jersey - New Brunswick 0190. Year: 2002. SUBJECT(S): History, United States;
History, Latin American; Political Science, International Law And Relations. SOURCE: DAI, 63, no. 03A (2002): p. 1093. ACCESSION #: AAI3046716. [ABSTRACT: This research demonstrates how the foreign policies of the Dwight D. Eisenhower and John F. Kennedy administrations toward Haiti were influenced by the politics of anticommunism and the modernization theories of the late 1950s and early 1960s. U.S. policy makers believed that by providing military and economic aid to Haiti 's ruler, President François Duvalier, they would ensure political stability and economic progress. Contented Haitians, then, would not be tempted to experiment with communism. U.S. officials also hoped that the rebuilding of Haiti through American aid would convince the leaders of emerging black nations of Africa and the Caribbean to embrace “humanitarian” capitalism instead of communism, thus allowing the U.S. to win an important battle of the Cold War.
Following Duvalier's fraudulent election as President, in 1957, the Eisenhower administration decided to raise the level of its economic and military aid to Haiti in order to stabilize and develop the country. However, Duvalier used this support mainly to tame the opposition. Still, American officials continued to support him because they thought he could become a valuable diplomatic ally. Since he was the ruler of an independent “black” country, he could rally soon-to-be independent African nations to the Western camp. By 1960, however, the Eisenhower administration realized that its policy had failed.
In 1961, the newly elected Kennedy administration launched a new aid program for Latin America built on the premise that only massive U.S. government funding could help poorer countries initiate an economic “take-off” phase. President Kennedy believed that Haiti should become the showcase of the program; if the U.S. could lift it from its economic morass, than it would show to Latin American, African, and Caribbean nations that humanitarian capitalism could work anywhere. Duvalier, however, used U.S. aid to strengthen his terror apparatus and illegally extend his term in office instead of “modernizing” Haiti. This left American policy makers only two options: send troops into Haiti to oust him or accept the status quo. Fearing the uproar an invasion of Haiti could generate among Latin American nations, which adhered strongly to the principle of non-intervention, and among African states, which could disapprove of white soldiers landing in Haiti, they elected to bow to Duvalier.]
ANTOINE, Claude-Hebert. Etude De L'intégration De Pratiques Novatrices De Lecture Chez Des Etudiantes Et Des Etudiants Haitiens Inscrits En Formation Initiale (French text). Pages: 00133. Degree: M.A. Institution: Université de Sherbrooke ( Canada ) 0512. Year: 2002. SUBJECT(S): . SOURCE: MAI, 41, no. 04 (2002): p. 902. ACCESSION #: AAIMQ74291. [ABSTRACT: Au cours des deux dernières Education, Reading décennies, différentes recherches en psychologie cognitive et en socio-constructivisme ont amené une nouvelle conception de l'apprentissage et de l'enseignement de la lecture. Cette dernière a entraîné la création d'activités innovatrices en milieu scolaire. Nous avons voulu, à travers cette recherche, explorer la formation initiale des futurs enseignants et enseignantes à ces nouvelles pratiques de lecture dans le but d'amener d'éventuelles améliorations à l'enseignement de la lecture dans son ensemble. Dans le contexte haïtien, nous croyons que la lecture est encore dispensée de manière traditionnelle et nous estimons que les enseignants et les enseignantes constituent les ressources humaines essentielles permettant d'améliorer l'enseignement de la lecture. La question de la formation étant soulevée dans le milieu haïtien comme un facteur d'échec du système éducatif, nous avons cru bon d'explorer cet aspect parallèlement à la lecture qui semble, actuellement, susciter certains remous dans le milieu éducatif en Haïti. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)]
ATTERBURY, Janine Tavernier. Une Tentative De Morphologie Du Conte Haitien: Suivie D'une Analyse Psychologique (French text). Pages: 00163. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: University of California, Davis 0029. Year: 2002. SUBJECT(S): ---. SOURCE: DAI, 63, no. 08A (2002): p. 2877. ACCESSION #: AAI3062188. [ABSTRACT: The relevance of folktales to past and present societies renders them indisputable as a tool in understanding cultural communities. In our work, which is divided in two main sections, we analyze Haitian folktales both morphologically and psychologically.
In the first part of our study, we begin with a morphological analysis of Haitian folktales where we introduce two eminent scholars to support our argumentation. Alan Dundes, and Vladimir Propp before him, have published morphology studies on North Indian folktales and Russian folktales, respectively. Their common deduction is that folktales should not be initially categorized by their content as has been previously done, but rather by destructuralizing the narrative into different functions held by their characters. I, myself, following in their footsteps, have also attempted to morphologically analyze Haitian folktales. Using a creative model composed of symbols representing the various functions of the dramatis personae, I chose a number of diverse folktales that I categorized in three different chapters. My intent was to prove that even though the content of folktales vary significantly, their basic structure remains constant when morphologically analyzed. I conclude that Haitian folktales merit the attention of scholars who are currently researching the vast world of universal folktales to give them the place they deserve in Literary Studies, in the domains of folklore, sociology, and psychology.
The second part of my work introduces the people of Haiti through their folklore, by means of their oral literature and particularly, their folktales. Questions are posed and answered, most of all about the role of voodoo, not only as a cult, but also as a way of living. We finally acknowledge that Haitian folktales when translated in any given language, lose their unique value due to the complexity of the vernacular language. The syntactic structure of Haitian Creole is not linear. It is characterized by culturally-determined patterns, i.e., assemblages of signs and symbols, body gesture, all connected intricately and pre-asserting a spontaneous psychic decoding.]
BANKS, Kimberly Louise. A Shotgun Marriage: Security Sector Reform And Development, A Case Study Of police Eeform In Haiti. Pages : 00101. Degree: M.A. Institution: Dalhousie University ( Canada ) 0328. Year: 2003. SUBJECT(S): Sociology, Social; Structure And Development; Sociology, Criminology And Penology. SOURCE: MAI, 42, no. 03 (2003): p. 837. ACCESSION #: AAIMQ83631. [ABSTRACT: The thesis explores the relationship between security and development, through the case study of Canadian security sector reform in Haiti. Over the last 15 years, the traditional security paradigm has undergone a significant revision allowing the inclusion of non-military ideas such as human security within a wider conception of security. As the concept of security evolves, linkages between security and development are increasingly addressed and identified by the development community. One manifestation of the merger of development and security may be seen in security sector reform. The Canadian police reform project undertaken by the RCMP and CIDA in Haiti is used as a case study to examine the practical combination of development and security concerns in a developing country. The project is evaluated through the use of seven security sector reform principles that contribute to wider sustainable development in a community. The CIDA/RCMP project is found to have had little positive impact on either the general security situation in Haiti or on promoting sustainable development within the security sector or in wider Haitian society. Lessons learned are presented in the conclusion for future security sector reform initiatives. Security and development should be addressed simultaneously to promote a safe environment, capable of supporting high levels of human security and human development.]
BANKS, Jared. Africa And The Archive: Literature, Identity, And The Postcolonial (Raoul Peck, Haiti, V. Y. Mudimbe, Congo, Pepetela, Angola, Yambo Ouologuem, Mali, Andre Brink, South Africa). Pages: 00227. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: The University of Wisconsin - Madison 0262. Year: 2001. SUBJECT(S): Literature, African Cinema; Literature, Comparative. SOURCE: DAI, 62, no. 07A (2001): p. 2418. ACCESSION #: AAI3020645. [ABSTRACT: Africa has operated not only as a geographical space to be conquered, but as a source of knowledge that could be collected, classified, exhibited by empires as they attempted to consolidate power over their colonies. This dissertation studies some of the divergent results when literature and film confront this “invention” of Africa. For the purpose of this dissertation, the archive is both a literal space (an “archive” like libraries, historical archives, and museums) and an epistemology (the “Archive” in Foucault's terms, a discourse informed by contradiction). By entering an “archive,” the storyteller (whether writer or film maker) confronts the immense body of knowledge produced about Africa. The identitarian process intersects with the textuality of the Archive as both a burden of colonialism and a rich resource for African cultural validation, a burial ground for African subjectivity and a wellspring of African nationalism. Chapter one reads Raoul Peck's film Lumumba: la mort du prophète as documentary not only on Lumumba but the space that Africa occupies in the Royal Museum for Central Africa in Tervuren, Belgium. Chapters two and three are a comparative reading of V. Y. Mudimbe's L'Ecart and Pepetela's Lueji: O nascimento dum império, two novels in which Africans enter historical archives. Both texts explore identity on an individual and a national level, but the results are starkly different. Chapter four examines the textuality of empire and violence against women in Le Devoir de violence, and the implications of representation itself. Chapter five studies the archives as mimicked in André Brink's An Instant in the Wind, but not easily exited. A remarkable number of inter-related themes are examined, including the relationship between institutional archives and the colonial state, history and anthropology as disciplines, nationalism as a counter narrative and as complicit with the Archive, the place of women and the subaltern, and the relationship between sexuality/masturbation, identity, and imagination. Each text responds along a continuum between the oppression/determinism of the Archive, on the one hand, and imagination/agency, on the other. The stories challenge the veracity of the colonial archives, and destabilize the dominance of facts over imagination, of science over fiction.]
BANNISTER, Michael Eugene. Dynamics Of Farmer Adoption, Adaptation, And Management Of Soil Conservation Hedgerows In Haiti. Pages: 00237. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: University of Florida 0070. Year: 2001. SUBJECT(S): Agriculture, Forestry And Wildlife. SOURCE: DAI, 62, no. 03B (2001): p. 1156. ACCESSION #: AAI3009881. [ABSTRACT: Understanding the conditions under which hillside farmers in Haiti adopt soil conservation practices helps programs to develop technologies that increase farmer revenue and stabilize or improve soil and water resources. Three studies were done in Haiti that examined biophysical and socioeconomic aspects of contour hedgerows, an agroforestry practice with the potential of stabilizing soil, conserving water for crops, increasing soil fertility, and producing wood and fodder.
An on-station study of soil water competition between Leucaena leucocephala (Lan.) de Wit hedgerows and adjacent maize ( Zea mays L.) over three cropping cycles found that substantial maize yield reduction was caused by the hedgerow trees because of soil water competition. Polyethylene barriers between the hedges and the first row of maize improved maize yield in two subsequent seasons by 18% and 77% over plots without barriers. The percent increase in maize yield was highest during a season of very poor rainfall; but it was lowest in a season of adequate rainfall. Barrier installation reduced Leucaena biomass production by about 1,500 kg/ha over seven months, but this effect was temporary. An examination of the distribution of Leucaena roots after the final maize harvest showed that the hedgerow roots in the plots with barriers had grown under the hedgerows and developed more fine roots at 200 cm from the hedges than plots without barriers.
An on-farm study comparing maize development in two kinds of hedgerows, rock wall terraces, and an untreated control was unable to detect differences in the rate of maize growth with respect to position within the alleys or with respect to position on the overall slope. However, the maize in the hedgerows developed more slowly than in the rock wall terraces or the control plot, indicating competitive interactions between maize and hedgerow plants. There were no differences in maize grain yield among treatments.
An on-farm questionnaire-based survey of 1,540 Haitian farmers showed that they considered plot characteristics, including mode of tenure, soil fertility, distance from the residence, and slope in their decisions to install different agroforestry practices. Tenure security and soil fertility appeared to be the most important plot characteristics in the decision to install, although it was not possible to separate them. Hedgerows were more likely to be installed in plots having less secure tenure and less fertile soil; the opposite was true for other agroforestry practices. Farmers' qualitative assessments of soil fertility were positively correlated with management quality of hedgerows.]
BASQUIAT, Jennifer Huss. Between Eternal Truth And Local Culture: Performing Mormonism In Haiti. Pages: 00267. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: The Claremont Graduate University 0047. Year: 2001. SUBJECT(S): Anthropology, Cultural; Religion, General. SOURCE : DAI, 61, no. 12A (2001): p. 4832. ACCESSION #: AAI9998940. [ABSTRACT: Religious practice in Haiti is rarely just what it seems. Each spiritual mythology that enters Haiti 's landscape is tainted with the aura of historical antagonism for the simple reason that religion in Haiti is not just a matter of spiritual practice. Rather, religion in Haiti, whether it is Vodou, Catholicism or one of the many strains of Protestantism, actually encodes and carries political and social dynamics that are crucial to the development and formation of a relatively autonomous cultural/national identity. As such, religion and religious practice emerge as primary identity markers for Haitian people. The religion they choose to practice, or more specifically, to perform, marks not merely a spiritual choice, but a cultural identity that places its practitioner at a particular location within larger Haitian society. It is the focus of this dissertation to shift this reality to the particular religion of Mormonism, one of the newest religions to enter Haiti. In particular, the research questions guiding this project ask, How is Mormonism performed in Haiti by both Mormon authority and individual Haitian Mormons and how do these performances inform the nature of Haitian Mormon religious/cultural identity? The method guiding this project is founded in an interdisciplinary approach grounded by both critical ethnography and performance studies. Succinctly argued, Haitian Mormons of the Petionville, Haiti ward emerge as bricoleurs who piece together their own religious and cultural identities within the larger framework of Mormonism. They do so sandwiched in the ‘in-between' spaces of Mormonism's proclaimed eternal truth and Haiti 's own local culture. Navigating this space becomes further problematized as Mormon authority in Haiti privileges/performs the text, thus occupying an ocularcentrist position, while the majority of Haitian Mormons perform/privilege the body, thus occupying an aural, embodied position. The implication of this realization is twofold: first, literate Haitian Mormons enjoy greater access to the theological promises of Mormonism while their non-literate counterparts remain relegated to the margins of Mormon practice, arguably enabling them with greater freedom to mold Mormonism to their needs; second, beyond the scope of this dissertation, the necessity for a multicultural approach to proselytizing becomes apparent.]
BATISTE, Stephanie Leigh. Darkening Mirrors: Imperial Representation, Otherness Andsubjectivity In African American Performance During The Depression Era. Pages: 00408. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: The George Washington University 0075. Year: 2003. SUBJECT(S): American Studies; Theater.Source: DAI, 63, no. 12A (2003): p. 4357. ACCESSION #: AAI3075177. [ABSTRACT: My study examines 1930s Black stage and screen productions for their express and underlying imperial representations and ideologies. Applying Fanon's suggestion that African Americans are post-colonial people, I investigate how post-coloniality and dis-empowerment in America combined with an empowered national gaze in “Negro” culture. I analyze representations of primitivism, exoticism, otherness, and expansion to explore the contradictory position of African American cultural producers during the latter part of the interwar period. I suggest that these productions displayed imperial agency and a profound sense of American nationalism on the one hand, and disidentification with America, national subalternity, American racial difference, and diasporic internationalism on the other. This work is critically concerned with imaginations of subjectivity, protest, coalition, complicity, and power.
In this work, theater and film are linked as arenas for performance, both places where bodies and narratives conjoin to please the public. Imperialism invokes contemplation of the body since, ideologically and materially, control and manipulation of invisibilized subaltern bodies are the very means through which imperial relations come into being. Thus, I employ embodied performances of cultural identities and power relationships on screen and stage to illuminate imperial imaginings through the performances' deployment of the very instrument disciplined in the production of imperial relations.
Chapter one explains my theoretical approach to analysis and provides historical background of the period. Each topical chapter engages a mode of historically racializing imperial discourse. Chapter two analyzes the performance of high modern exoticism in plays “ voodoo ” Macbeth and Haiti for its contradictory articulations of imperialism and protest. Chapter three shows how blacks' use of images of expansion and notions of open space in film established African American embodiment of mainstream middle-class ideologies. Chapter four explores the significations of “orientalism” in a “Swing” performance of the British imperial play, The Mikado. Chapter five examines the role of anthropological discourses in the formation of black diaspora. The multiple reflections of self in the face of “other,” and vice versa, in the deployment of representations of cultural power creates a palimpsest of identities, disidentifications, and activisms, (the “darkening mirrors”) that demonstrates the deep complexity of black Americans' national identities.]
BAYARD, Budry. Environmental Self-efficacy And Behavior Of Limited Resource Farmers In Haiti. Pages: 00210. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: Auburn University 0012. Year: 2003. SUBJECT(S): Economics, agricultural. SOURCE: DAI, 64, no. 11A (2003): p. 4140. ACCESSION #: AAI3112380. [ABSTRACT: Prior research on environmental degradation in Haiti examined the role of socioeconomic and physical factors on the adoption process of soil conservation practices. However, little research has been conducted to elucidate farmers' perceptions of environmental degradation and its influence on their farming behavior. This study develops a conceptual framework to examine the causal effects of perceptions, attitude, and awareness on farmers' environmental behavior and self-efficacy. Using a structural modeling approach, the study examines the effect of perceived susceptibility, severity, benefit, and barriers on farmers' awareness of, and attitude toward environmental degradation. Effects of awareness and attitude on environmental self-efficacy and behavior are investigated. This study also analyzes the impact of socioeconomic conditions and human capital stock on farmers' perceptions, awareness, attitude, self-efficacy, and behavior.
Data were collected through personal interviews with 594 farm operators in two regions in Haiti. Results of the study revealed that perception of the severity of environmental degradation had a positive influence on both awareness of, and attitude toward land degradation. Perception of susceptibility and benefits significantly influence farmers' attitude toward environmental degradation.
The study showed that awareness of environmental degradation is a significant precursor of environmental self-efficacy and behavior. Greater awareness of environmental degradation enhances farmers capability in making decisions to improve the situation. Greater awareness may also lead to greater involvement in land management programs. Farmers' environmental self-efficacy may also play a significant role in their decision to change their behavior. Greater perception of one's capability to improve the environment is significantly associated with a more positive environmental behavior.
The study investigated the role of socioeconomic conditions on farmers' environmental self-efficacy and behavior structure. The results showed that farmers with low socioeconomic stature had a lower perception of the severity of environmental degradation but a greater perception of their self-efficacy than those of high socioeconomic standings. However, the level of awareness and individuals' attitude and behavior seem to be similar across socioeconomic standings. Awareness of land degradation had a stronger influence on farmers' environmental self-efficacy and behavior for farmers in a higher socioeconomic bracket. Unlike farmers' socioeconomic standings, human capital stock appeared to have little effect on farmers' environmental self-efficacy and behavior.]
BEER, David Charles. The Partnership Of Peacebuilding: A Case Study Of Justice Development In Haiti. Pages: 00110. Degree: M.A. Institution: University of Windsor ( Canada ) 0115. Year: 2002. SUBJECT(S): Political Science, International Law And Relations. SOURCE: MAI, 41, no. 04 (2002): p. 963. ACCESSION #: AAIMQ75777. [ABSTRACT: Since peacebuilding was introduced as a strategy for the international community to deal more effectively with intra-state conflict, it has become recognized as a complex and expensive process of change, demanding collective action. The international ‘partnership' of peacebuilding that has emerged is examined in the context of justice sector development in Haiti. Issues that tended to complicate the peacebuilding process, and impact on the success of the intervention: multilateralism and donor self-interest, the need of systems development, the role of the civil sector, success measurement, and sustainability of programs, are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the extent to which there was cooperation and collaboration among the donor ‘partners', the need of greater attention to improved human rights conditions as a success indicator, and the absolute need of a recipient state committed to change. In that Canada contributed significantly to this international intervention, the implications of the participation are discussed in terms of the country's foreign policy objectives. The author, a member of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police on secondment to the Canadian International Development Agency, planned and then directed bilateral Canadian policing development assistance to Haiti. Later, he was as a member of a UN-led international team that planned the last of the series multilateral policing missions to Haiti. In this respect, the author was a participant-observer from both the bilateral and multilateral perspectives.]
BILLAU, Daneta Galene. Clinton's Foreign Policy And The Politics Of Intervention: Cases Of Ethnic Cleansing And Democratic Governance (Bill Clinton). Pages: 00294. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: Old Dominion University 0418. Year: 2002. SUBJECT(S): Political Science, International Law And Relations. SOURCE: DAI, 64, no. 01A (2002): p. 278. ACCESSION #: AAI3077275. [ABSTRACT: This dissertation examines the sources of U.S. President Bill Clinton's foreign policy, with special attention to understudied political elements of intervention. The basis of this study is the Clinton Doctrine, in which Clinton opposed ethnic cleansing, and supported democratic governance worldwide. The primary research question asks to what extent and why was there a variation in Clinton 's application of his own doctrine in the specific cases of Rwanda in 1994, Haiti in 1994, and East Timor in 1999. To address this question, the following five hypotheses are posited:
H 1 : The more vital interests are at stake, and the closer the United States is to the crisis, the more the president will push for intervention. Conversely, the more peripheral interests are at stake, and the more distant the United States is from the crisis, the less the president will push for intervention.
H 2 : The more a U.S. ally is likely to intervene, the less the president will intervene. Conversely, the less a U.S. ally is likely to intervene, the more the president will intervene.
H 3 : The more the United Nations is likely to call for intervention, the more the United States is likely to support it.
H 4 : The more the U.S. Congress is likely to call for intervention, the more the president will intervene. Conversely, the more the U.S. Congress is likely to oppose intervention, the less the president will intervene.
H 5 : The more the media opposes the president's policy, the more public opinion will engage during crisis, and the more cautious the president will be regarding intervention. Conversely, the more the media endorses the president's policy, the less public opinion will engage during crisis, and the less cautious the president will be regarding intervention.
These hypotheses pertain to the five variables examined, including support for intervention from international allies, the United Nations, the U.S. Congress, U.S. public opinion and the media, and U.S. interests under the Clinton administration.]
BLAZEK, Barbara Eileen. Development Of Training For Early Childhood Educators In Haiti. Pages : 00111. Degree: M.A. Institution: The American University 0008. Year: 2003. SUBJECT(S): Education, Teacher Training; Education, Early Childhood; Anthropology, Cultural. SOURCE: MAI, 42, no. 04 (2003): p. 1118. ACCESSION #: AAI1417391. [ABSTRACT: This case study examines the design and facilitation of a training of caregivers in early childhood care and development for a newly-established orphanage community in Haiti. The overarching goal of this organization is to provide the best inputs possible to enrich the physical, cognitive, social and emotional development of the children while instilling them with a purpose dedicated to the betterment of Haiti.
This study addresses the effectiveness of an early childhood caregivers' five-day training as based upon the transference of knowledge, skills and attitudes to the home situation with the children. Determining the best practices in early childhood care and education, adult education while respecting Haitian culture informed the design of the training. Playing the role of participant observer served as the principal data collection and analysis method used to develop the case study.]
BOSSA, Jean Rene. Effects Of Phosphorus And Potassium Released By Leucaena Leaves On Corn And Their Accumulation In Soils. Pages: 00129. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: Auburn University 0012. Year: 2004. SUBJECT(S): Agriculture, Agronomy; Agriculture, Soil Science. SOURCE: DAI, 65, no. 02B (2004): p. 485. ACCESSION #: AAI3124257. [ABSTRACT: Soil fertility management is an important issue in agricultural production. Farmers in undeveloped countries must use cultural practices to improve soil fertility. One recommended technique is alley cropping of Leucaena leucocephala and food crops. The objectives of this study were (i) to determine the pattern of leucaena leaf mulch decomposition, P and K release and evaluate the potential of nutrient release by this plant over time, (ii) assess the impact of different rates of P, K, Zn inorganic fertilizers and leucaena leaves applied on corn yield components and selected soil chemical characteristics.
Mesh bags of leucaena were placed onto soils for 32 weeks, retrieved periodically for dry matter determination and analyzed for chemical compositions. Application of inorganic P-K fertilizers didn't affect leucaena leaf dry matter decomposition or P and K release. Consistently in the three environments, the best fit is obtained by the use of the asymptotic or three parameters model of decay for dry matter disappearance and P and K content. Phosphorus immobilization up to 16 weeks was observed. After 32 weeks of decay cumulative leucaena leaf P and K release in the three environments reached up to 4.5 kg ha -1 of P and 35.2 kg ha -1 of K. These results suggested that the decomposition time (32 weeks) was not optimal and special attention should be given to plant age in further studies.
The effects of P, K and Zn inorganic fertilizer with or without Leucaena prunings on corn yield and components were studied during three cropping seasons at four sites in Haiti selected for differences in parent material and soil chemical properties. At Pernier, application of Zn at the rate of 10 kg ha -1 together with 60 P and 40 K gave the highest corn yield. Pruning applications improved net income from an average of $26.20 to $74.30 ha -1 at Salagnac, from an average of $95.65 to $134.90 at Bergeau and from an average of $137.20 to $250.45 ha -1 at St. Georges for no pruning and pruning treatments, respectively. The third cropping season gave the highest yield and net income in the four environments. Leucaena pruning effects were greater when they are associated with application of P and K fertilizers.]
BOURSIQUOT, Marie Uranie. The Distory Of Psychology And Associated Disciplines In Haiti (Louis Mars, Chavannes Douyon). Pages: 00122. Degree: Psy.D. Institution: Carlos Albizu University 1355. Year: 2001. SUBJECT(S): Psychology, Clinical. SOURCE: DAI, 63, no. 01B (2001): p. 516. ACCESSION #: AAI3040648. [ABSTRACT: This dissertation examines the development of Psychology as it relates to other sciences and the transfer of knowledge in Haiti. It traces the development and role of psychology with special focus on Louis Mars, the pioneer psychiatrist, and Chavannes Douyon, the father of psychology in Haiti. Their unique body of work relating to ethnopsychiatry, psychology, culture, and psychologicial testing is well referenced in Haiti.
In his fight to prevent and treat mental illness, Louis Mars introduced major charges in mental health practices. In 1941, he founded the ligue Nationale d'Hygiene Mentale in Haiti, which was a proposal to promote mental health. He introduced diagnostic classification of patients at the hospital, removed the chains and bars, and put a face and a name on patients suffering from mental illness. In 1946, he coined the word ethnopsychiatry, which reappeared in the principal dictionaries in 1952, representing a link between medicine and ethnology (Mars, 1993). It was a bold move that unified ethnology and the other social sciences in the diagnosis of mental illness and in the diagnostic formulation of certain manifestations that are non pathologic but culturally based.
Long before the establishment of psychology as an independent field of study at the university level in Haiti, Haitian students were studying it at the undergraduate level and at the universities and training centers abroad. 1936 marked the introduction of Haitian psychiatry. In 1956, psychology was introduced in Haiti with the creation of the department of psychology at the school of medicine of Port-Au-Prince. In 1974, Psychology was introduced at the university level at the Faculté des Sciences Humaines. Applied psychology was introduced with the opening of the Centre de Neurologie et de Psychiatrie Mars & Kline in 1958. In 1973, the Centre National d'Orientation Professionelle undertook a project to assess the intellectual potential of the Haitian child and the application of non-verbal instruments (Romain, 1985; Alexis et al., 1990; Douyon, 1991). (Abstract shortened by UMI.)]
BOUTROS, Alexandra Kathleen. Ritual Knowledge, Virtual Analysis: Reading Vodou From The Inside Out. Pages: 00156. Degree: M.A. Institution: Concordia University ( Canada ) 0228. Year: 2001. SUBJECT(S): Anthropology, Cultural; Religion, General. SOURCE: MAI, 40, no. 04 (2001): p. 874. ACCESSION #: AAIMQ64102. [ABSTRACT: Vodou is a syncretic and hybrid religious tradition that generates unique understandings of concepts such as identity and home. This examination of Vodou practices in Montreal focuses on a growing number of new initiates and converts to the religion. These newcomers to Vodou have a complex relationship with a religious discourse that is often continuous with the historical and cultural specificity of Haiti, the birthplace of the Vodou tradition. The purpose of this analysis is to make a religious system of thought explicit by examining how the religion constitutes and reconstitutes the identity of its practitioners. Exploring how newcomers to the Vodou tradition both shape and are shaped by discourses transmitted through the language, literature and rituals of Vodou reveals a unique and fluid epistemology that is original to the Vodou tradition. What emerges in this self-reflexive and interdisciplinary analysis is the realisation that Vodou posits ways of understanding the world that differ substantially from ways of knowing embraced by the academy. The ease with which the discourses of Vodou empower practitioners to concurrently encompass seemingly conflicted identities disrupts standard and dichotomous perceptions of identity. In addition, the knowledge generated and disseminated through the lwa (gods) of the tradition shapes the way in which new Vodouists understand the world and their place in it. Sometimes this conception of the world opposes the one generated by academic discourse. This thesis illustrates the dialogue and tension between these divergent ways of knowing.]
BOYD, Heather A. Community-level Determinants Of The Geographic Distribution Of Wuchereria Bancrofti Infection In Leogane Commune, Haiti. Pages: 00302. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: Emory University 0665. Year: 2003. SUBJECT(S): Health Sciences, Public Health; Biology, Biostatistics. SOURCE: DAI, 64, no. 11B (2003): p. 5474. ACCESSION #: AAI3111446. [ABSTRACT: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is caused by the mosquito-transmitted parasitic worms Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori. The geographic distribution of W. bancrofti infection, which is responsible for approximately 90% of LF worldwide, is non-uniform and its community-level determinants have not been identified. We conducted a school-based assessment of the geographic distribution of W. bancrofti infection in Leogane Commune, Haiti. Using generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) with school-specific non-spatial random effects, we evaluated potential associations between infection status and geographic, socioeconomic and demographic risk factors, as well as landscape elements derived from Landsat satellite imagery. In addition, we analyzed the spatial patterns in the infection prevalence data using semi-variograms and correlograms, and compared the GLMM results to results from standard logistic regression models (GLMs) and Bayesian hierarchical models (BHMs) with spatial random effects. W. bancrofti infection status was strongly associated with topographic zone, administrative section, altitude and several landscape elements (agricultural vegetation, rock/rocky soil, native grasses and trees), and moderately associated with age; there was no association between infection status and gender, tuition (a marker of socioeconomic status) or nutrition program availability. The tuition and geographic variable results have important implications for LF elimination program community motivation/education and mapping activities, respectively. Although the utility of multivariate landscape element models (models containing >2 variables) was limited because of collinearity, our results suggest that combinations of landscape elements may be important in explaining the geographic distribution of W. bancrofti infection (more so than the individual elements alone). We discuss the challenges associated with processing and interpreting Landsat image data and incorporating image-derived landscape element variables into standard epidemiologic analytic frameworks. We also provide evidence of a clear spatial pattern in the W. bancrofti infection data, indicating that accounting for spatial correlation between outcomes is probably important and using GLMs to analyze these data is likely inappropriate. GLMM assumptions may be violated by such spatial correlation, suggesting that standard GLMMs may be inappropriate for the analysis of spatially correlated data as well. Bayesian hierarchical modeling is introduced as a readily-implementable framework wherein spatially structured random effects can be explicitly specified.]
BRICE, Marcelin. Style De Leadership Des Directeurs Et Directrices D'etablissement Et Réussite Scolaire Au Niveau Secondaire Public En Haiti (French text). Pages: 00179. Degree: M.A. Institution: Universite Laval ( Canada ) 0726. Year: 2003. SUBJECT(S): Education, administration. SOURCE: MAI, 42, no. 05 (2003): p. 1441. ACCESSION #: AAIMQ86909. [ABSTRACT: Une bonne partie de la population haïtienne est alphabétisée aujourd'hui. Cependant, le taux de réussite reste très faible au niveau de l'ensemble du pays. De manière spécifique on observe un taux d'échec toujours à la hausse aux examens du bac. Il s'agit évidemment d'un phénomène éminemment complexe qui fait intervenir une multitude de facteurs dont le leadership des directeurs/trices d'établissement scolaire sur lequel nous avons choisi de faire porter notre étude. Notre enquête auprès d'un certain nombre de directeurs/trices et d'enseignants nous a permis de constater que parmi les trois styles de leadership dominants de notre recherche, le style de leadership démocratique bienveillant contribue à un meilleur résultat des élèves au niveau secondaire. Ainsi, nous sommes parvenu à la conclusion de promouvoir ce style de leadership qui semble correspondre à une meilleure performance des écoles secondaires publiques en Haïti et ce, dans le but de l'amélioration de la formation des élèves et de leurs résultats scolaires.]
BRISSMAN, D'Arcy Morgan. Interpreting American Hegemony: Civil Military Relations During The United States Marine Corps' Occupation Of Haiti, 1915--1934. Pages: 00354. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: Duke University 0066. Year: 2001. SUBJECT(S): History, United States; History, Latin American. SOURCE: DAI, 63, no. 02A (2001): p. 724. ACCESSION #: AAI3041564. [ABSTRACT: From 1915 to 1934, the United States Marine Corps attempted to establish hegemony in Haiti through programs of national uplift and technical progress. The marines worked to fulfill U.S. policymakers' goal of a stable and prosperous Haiti with American-inspired institutions, including massive improvements in infrastructure, a politically neutral constabulary, and a vocational system of education. This dissertation attempts to explain why, despite the nineteen-year duration of the occupation—the longest of the marines' Caribbean interventions in this period—these programs failed to nurture stability and prosperity that endured when the marines' departed. Drawing on official Marine Corps records and personal papers of both marines and Haitians from collections in the U.S. and Haiti, this work brings together varied perspectives on the occupation to construct a social history of civil-military relations and to examine the diplomatic and policymaking functions of the Marine Corps in the early twentieth century.
The marines did not create durable American hegemony because they failed to gain the investment of Haitians themselves in the work of the occupation. The marines, largely left alone to interpret the goals of officials in Washington, mostly excluded Haitians from the day-to-day business of policymaking and public administration. American hegemony in Haiti proved ephemeral without a group of Haitians invested in American notions of stability and prosperity who were eager to continue the work of the marines.
For their part, Haitians in both the elite and the peasantry responded to the occupation and their exclusion from its work with a mixture of bewilderment and resistance. Initially grateful for the stability the intervention provided, members of all classes consented to the rule of the marines. Haitians soon grew frustrated with the authoritarian administration of the occupation, but could reach no consensus on the most appropriate way to respond to the occupation. Although some Haitians engaged in passive and active resistance with a variety of violent and non-violent tactics, most simply waited out the occupation. For the elite in particular, the occupation represented an opportunity to re-evaluate their traditional connection to Europe and to shape a new Haitian national identity.]
CABAN-VALES, Francisco J. The Violin And Piano Eepertoire Of Twentieth-century Latin America: A Bibliography With Annotations Of Selected Compositions. Pages: 00123. Degree: D.M.A. Institution: The University of Texas at Austin 0227. Year: 2003. SUBJECT(S): Music. SOURCE: DAI, 64, no. 12A (2003): p. 4259. ACCESSION #: AAI3117858. [ABSTRACT: This work brings together for the first time a comprehensive list of the violin and piano repertoire of twentieth-century Latin America. Works by composers born in Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean, and South America are included. It is an effort to stimulate the performance and publication of works by known and relatively unknown composers. At the same time it provides commentaries on many pieces, examining their structure, character, and usefulness as recital pieces and pedagogical material. Hopefully more scholarly works of a similar nature will follow, since the gathering of materials of countries like Haiti, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Honduras was particularly troublesome. The Latin American violin repertoire is a rich subject which will certainly prove a fertile ground to performers, teachers, and scholars alike.]
CARPEL, Cassionny. Point De Vue Des Enseignants Haitiens Au Sujet Du Rendement Scolaire Des Elèves Du Secondaire (French text). Pages: 00146. Degree: M.A. Institution: Université Laval ( Canada ) 0726. Year: 2002. SUBJECT(S): Education, Sociology Of. SOURCE: MAI, 41, no. 05 (2002): p. 1260. ACCESSION #: AAIMQ77268. [ABSTRACT: Ce mémoire est une étude descriptive et exploratoire sur les représentations que les enseignants haïtiens font des causes de l'échec scolaire des élèves du secondaire en Haïti.
Il s'agit de comprendre les perceptions des enseignants, voir s'ils estiment faire partie du problème de l'échec scolaire et solliciter d'eux des alternatives ou des solutions en vue de réduire ce problème. Certaines caractéristiques particulières des répondants comme le sexe, le niveau de scolarité, le type de formation, l'appartenance syndicale et le nombre d'années d'expérience apportent des nuances parfois significatives dans leurs opinions.
Les résultats de cette recherche, réalisée à travers un sondage auprès de 95 enseignants haïtiens du secondaire indiquent que les répondants attribuent l'échec scolaire davantage aux enseignants et à l'organisation scolaire. Pour résoudre ce problème, les répondants proposent d'atténuer les problèmes sociopolitiques, de mieux gérer les écoles et d'encadrer davantage les enseignants.]
CHARLIER Doucet, Rachelle. Language Ideology, Socialization And Pedagogy In Haitian Schools And Society. Pages: 00466. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: New York University 0146. Year: 2003. SUBJECT(S): Anthropology, Cultural; Education, Sociology Of; Language, Modern. SOURCE: DAI, 64, no. 09A (2003): p. 3352. ACCESSION #: AAI3105858. [ABSTRACT: This dissertation explores the social construction of Haitian identity and citizenship viewed through ideological and practical issues surrounding Haiti 's two languages, Haitian Kreyòl and French. I look particularly at the social construction of Haitian Kreyòl as it has emerged through competing discourses as a language equal to French, becoming a language of authority and empowerment. Combining sociolinguistic and ethnographic methods, my study is situated in rural and urban schools throughout Haiti. I analyse the metaphors and extensive metalinguistic terms used by parents, teachers and students to reveal how local ideas about both languages, how they vary and what they signify are shaping current social and political decisions. In addition, I analyze the different stances taken by language activists and linguists in the sociolinguistic and educational battles over Kreyòl literacy and orthography and show that the views of ordinary people as well as trained linguists appear to be potentially reconciliable in view of the profound social transformations underway in contemporary Haiti.]
CHICLANA y Gonzalez, Arleen. The Archaeology Of Sycorax: The Sycorax Syndrome And The Implosive Imaginary (William Shakespeare, Miriam Warner-Vieyra, Jamaica Kincaid, Edwidge Danticat, Ana Lydia Vega, Jose Luis Gonzalez, Guadeloupe, Antigua, Haiti, Puerto Rico). Pages: 00292. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: The University of Rochester 0188. Year: 2001. SUBJECT(S): Literature, Comparative;
Women's Studies; Literature, English; Theater. SOURCE: DAI, 62, no. 02A (2001): p. 580. ACCESSION #: AAI3005544. [ABSTRACT: Diverse attempts have been made to probe the male characters in Shakespeare's The Tempest; these figures have been ascribed a highly political depictional value. However, the possibilities of exploring and transforming the female figures have been largely ignored. My project inscribes the female characters, Sycorax and Miranda, in order to reveal how poignantly their absence-presence accents the play. Through the characters, I secure a theory that is inclusive of Africanness and of women. I argue that these characters are the embodiment of the silences that irrupt through the narrative, and that theirs are silences that also serve to frame, to mold, to contain, and to ejaculate an utterance that asserts itself by vocalizing desire and denouncing an oppressive colonial experience. Both characters emit a cry that describes a different history and prescribes a different vision: Sycorax as a forgotten history and a repressed origin, Miranda, as her offspring, the Caribbean writer who is seeking her own voice.
Arguing against current psychoanalytical methodologies, I contend that in colonial identificatory processes the visual space that relies upon reflection and which is created by language is superseded by a third space that is created by refraction and one that Sycorax rules. I denominate as Sycorax's syndrome the particular identificatory phenomenon that occurs in, and affects, colonial subjectivity and sexual identity. The Sycorax syndrome challenges the Lacanian concept of the “mirror” phase.
The Sycorax syndrome will help explore the themes of madness and exile in Miriam Warner-Vieyrals novel, Juletane, and it will help elucidate woman's desire for the Mother in Jamaica Kincaid's Annie John. Sycorax and Miranda will help explore the themes of madness, forlornness and virginity in Edwidge Danticat's Breath, Eyes, Memory. In addition, I offer an analysis of Ana Lydia Vega's “La otra maldad de Pateco,” and José Luis González' “En el fondo del caño hay un negrito,” as perfect examples of the marginal space the colonial subject occupies in current psychoanalytical theory. Shakespeare's characters will prove to be ideal icons with which to represent the silences found in Caribbean literary production and the Canon that resists their penetration.]
CHITHARANJAN, Jayne Siobhan Kitkowski. Nutritional Status Of Preschool Children In HaitiRelated To Mother's Participation In Women's Groups. Pages: 00145. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: The University of Wisconsin - Madison 0262. Year: 2001. SUBJECT(S): Health Sciences, Nutrition; Health Sciences, Public Health. SOURCE: DAI, 62, no. 04B (2001): p. 1811. ACCESSION #: AAI3012470. [ABSTRACT: Children from Haiti face an uncertain future given the political, socioeconomic and environmental hardships. A study to determine the nutritional status of 24–60 month old children in the Maissade Commune, Central Plateau Department was completed from November 1997 to March 1998. A survey was administered to 554 households in which mothers were paired according to their participation in women's groups (participant versus non-participant). Agricultural, economic, social and nutritional information about the household and index child was collected. A clinic examination included physical and eye exams, morbidity history and plasma blood collection. Vitamin A, ß-carotene and ferritin levels were determined for 229 children.
Growth faltering was widely prevalent in this study. Fifty-three percent of the preschool children were stunted (below -2Z scores for height for age). Children of nonparticipants were significantly more stunted than children of participants. Wasting (low weight for height) was found in 5.56% of the children. Arm circumference measures were significantly different between groups of children. Over 16% of the children of nonparticipants had arm circumference measures of 13.5 cm or less compared to 10% of children of participants.
Fifty-eight percent of the children had marginal vitamin A status (<20 µg/dL) and 34% had severely deficient vitamin A status (<10µg/dL) despite vitamin A capsule supplementation rates exceeding 50% coverage. Ferritin levels were below 12 ng/dL in 20% of this population. Morbidity indices were not significantly associated with micronutrient levels. Environmental variables, which would impact morbidity (water source, latrine source), were not significantly associated with morbidity or micronutrient indices.
Preschool children of Haitian mothers who participated in a women's group demonstrated healthier growth parameters than the non-participants. Differences between the participant and non-participants in women's groups which may influence this difference included literacy rates, educational level and socioeconomic status. Education was found to explain much of the difference between the groups. It is clear is that women's groups are a viable community organization in the Central Department of Haiti which can contribute to improved nutritional status of children, possibly mediated by increased literacy.]
CONLEY, Bridget Kathleen. In The Name Of Humanity: The Ethics And Politics Of Humanitarian Intervention In Bosnia And Haiti. Pages: 00306. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: State University of New York at Binghamton 0792. Year: 2001. SUBJECT(S): Literature, Comparative; Literature, Modern; Journalism; Political Science, General. SOURCE: DAI, 62, no. 07A (2001): p. 2411. ACCESSION #: AAI3019483. [ABSTRACT: As humanitarianism has become an increasingly popular banner under which to take action, its successes and promises have been expanded upon exponentially while its ideological conundrums, failures, and aporias have remained largely unexamined. That is where this dissertation begins. It opens with a historical analysis of humanitarian action as it has bordered on human rights, focusing on the International Committee of the Red Cross, examining this institution's challenges from historical events, other organizations and theories of intervention. The second and third parts of the dissertation deal with the recent militaro-humanitarian interventions in Bosnia and Haiti. In Bosnia, the focus is on the place that the discovery of “camps” came to play in the history of international response to the war and how the human is implicated in this discovery and responses. In Haiti, the focus is on the role of refugees and the possibility for thinking rights through the plight of the refugee. Intensely interdisciplinary, this dissertation draws on a wide range of texts: of literary, legal, journalistic, policy analysis, philosophical, and historical orientations. Throughout, discrete historical examples are the springboard for theoretical deconstruction of what remains the uncertain heart of humanitarianism—the human.]
COUPEAU, Steeve. State, Social Elites And Local Governance In Haiti. Pages: 00204. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: New School for Social Research 0145. Year: 2001. SUBJECT(S): Political Science, General; Political Science, International Law And Relations; History, Latin American. SOURCE: DAI, 62, no. 09A (2001): p. 3168. ACCESSION #: AAI3025956. [ABSTRACT: This dissertation explores the incentive structures for farmers to participate in civic associations providing concrete goods and services and for governments to allocate and enforce secure property rights in Haiti. It submits the following hypothesis: Citizen participation is higher among secure property owners than among insecure ones. The analysis tests the hypothesis by comparing the civic participation rates of owners and non-owners. The data fully supports this proposition.
The limited motivation deriving from insecure property rights is likely to be reflected in decreasing support of, and participation in civic associations, particularly in rural contexts. This generates the corollary hypothesis that the limited civic participation of insecure farmers weakens civic associations. This original analysis tested the corollary hypothesis by gauging levels of civic participation in two detailed case studies. The first locality, Verrettes, displayed land concentration, low to intermediate levels of tenure security and weak civic participation. The second locality, Camp-Pérrin, enjoyed intermediate to high levels of ownership security and displayed strong civic participation. Field data, which consist of extensive survey and interviews, fully support the corollary hypothesis.
The dissertation further argues that the nature of a political regime shapes its response to low levels of confidence in the legal sector. The authoritarian regime failed to adequately respond to the low public confidence in the court system in Haiti. Instead, it adopted a supportive attitude towards a narrow set of constituents. In contrast, the democratic regime implemented an agrarian reform because of its responsiveness to its constituency and the ability of mediating groups to pass crucial information to elected officials. Such information includes the number of individuals they represent and institutional ability to provide political support to the democratic regime.
Two clear overall messages emerge from this cross-regional analysis of inter-relations between property rights and civic participation. First, under conditions of resource constraint, emphasis on property rights holds the greatest prospects for stimulating civic participation and strengthening the foundation of civil society in Haiti and countries at similar levels of economic development. Second, efficient resource management is best achieved amidst communities where property rights are diffused.]
CUSACK, Karen Jean. Refugee Experiences Of Trauma And PTSD: Effects On Psychological, Physical, And Financial Well-being. Pages: 00109. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: Western Michigan University 0257. Year: 2001. SUBJECT(S): Psychology, Clinical; Sociology, Public And Social Welfare; Sociology, Ethnic And Racial Studies. SOURCE: DAI, 62, no. 10B (2001): p. 4778. ACCESSION #: AAI3028752. [ABSTRACT: This study examined the traumatic experiences and psychological symptoms of 60 refugees who were recently resettled in the United States. Subjects were from Cuba, Iraq, Haiti, Sudan, and Bosnia. Data was collected for each subject on traumatic experiences occurring prior to their arrival. In addition, anxiety and depression were assessed using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSC-25). Quality of life and coping skills were assessed using the WHO Quality of Life-BREF and the Coping Styles Questionnaire, respectively. Trained, bi-lingual interviewers assessed for PTSD using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. All instruments were translated into the appropriate language for subjects who did not speak English. Measures were back-translated to assure accuracy of translations. Three months following their arrival, information was collected regarding employment and public assistance. Predictors of PTSD, quality of life, and refugee self-sufficiency were analyzed using multiple regression and logistic regression analyses. Trauma-related variables were predictive of PTSD, which in turn had a negative impact on quality of life and self-sufficiency. Implications for the resettlement programs of government and non-governmental organizations are discussed.]
DESPEIGNES, Guy. Politique De Santé, Médicalisation De la Société Et Emergence De La Médecine Clinique Moderne En Haïti (1804--1915) (French text). Pages: 00283. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: Universite de Montreal ( Canada ) 0992. Year: 2001. SUBJECT(S): History Of Science; Health Sciences, Medicine And Surgery; History, Latin American. SOURCE: DAI, 62, no. 12A (2001): p. 4309. ACCESSION #: AAINQ65301. [ABSTRACT: Cette thèse a pour objet d'analyser le processus d'implantation de la médecine moderne clinique en Haïti. L'analyse est conduite en cinq chapitres qui permettent de cerner les facteurs socio-historiques, scientifiques et institutionnels de ce processus, lesquels ont ponctué d'abord la formation et ensuite le développement de la médecine clinique dans ce pays. Pour ce faire, nous avons lié l'approche externaliste à l'approche internaliste de l'histoire des sciences; la première étant axée sur l'étude des conditions sociales ou historiques qui ont permis l'élaboration de programmes de politique en médecine et santé publique et la seconde sur le développement scientifique médical au sein des institutions sociales et scientifiques d'enseignement, de pratique médicale, de soins ou de recherche comme l'École de Médecine, les hôpitaux et les polycliniques. Il s'agit donc d'une contribution à une histoire sociale et scientifique de la médecine.
Au premier chapitre, nous analysons le contexte sociopolitique et économique de l'aprés-indépendance d'Haïti. Cet examen nous amène à comprendre l'enjeu combien important que constituent les “ressources” humaines pour le nouvel État en raison de considérations économiques et militaires.
Au deuxième chapitre, nous portons ainsi notre attention sur le programme et les réalisations en matière de politique de santé du nouvel État.
Le troisième chapitre porte sur la médicalisation de la société. Remontant à la période coloniale, il montre comment une première forme de médicalisation mise en place par les Français constitue une sorte de stratégie d'assujettissement du corps social aux normes et pratiques officiellement établies selon les intérêts coloniaux. Après l'indépendance, il s'agit pour la nouvelle République d'instituer un ordre hospitalier correspondant à la nouvelle médecine pratique et de contrôler les praticiens illégaux.
Au chapitre quatre, nous examinons la médicalisation en l'inscrivant dans le contexte des changements d'ordre conjoncturel et structurel survenus à partir des années 1820, lequel contexte aura un impact majeur sur la structure de médicalisation de la société.
Le cinquième chapitre analyse le processus d'émergence de la médecine moderne en Haïti. Cet examen met en lumière les modalités institutionnelles et scientifiques d'implantation de cette médecine dans ce pays, ainsi que le développement de la méthode anatomo-clinique qui y est sous-jacente. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)]
DREXLER, Michael Jacob. Vernacular Columbia: The Practice Of Community in Post-revolutionary American Literature (Philip Freneau, Susanna Rowson, William Dunlap, Charles Brockden Brown, Lenora Sansay). Pages: 00226. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: Brown University 0024. Year: 2003. SUBJECT(S): Literature, American; American Studies. SOURCE: DAI, 64, no. 04A (2003): p. 1253. ACCESSION #: AAI3087251. [ABSTRACT: Vernacular Columbia challenges the consensus about the parallel development of nation and culture in early America. In it, I consider drama, pamphlet literature, history writing, travel narratives, and eyewitness accounts to ask how writers imagined practical collective agency and investigated the limits of imagined communal solidarity. Departing from the influential rubric of the “national imaginary,” I focus on the representation and practice of local, regional and circum-Atlantic affiliation in the theater and in the marketplace for prose literature. Despite the apotheosis of the United States following political independence from England, the dynamics of colonialism and empire continued to structure the practices of communality both in early republican America and throughout the hemisphere. I describe not only the legacy of colonial forms of communal practice but their persistence and reanimation as well in post-revolutionary contexts. Because African slavery and the slave-trade were among the most visible and intransigent institutions yoking the colonial and post-revolutionary eras, I have asked how a variety of communal practices and vernacular discourses accommodated or contested these institutions.
My use of “ Columbia ” calls attention to the importance of hemispheric political and social change. In particular, I track representations of the Haitian Revolution in turn-of-the-century Anglophone literature. Haiti, I argue, not only represented a challenge to existing and emergent racial ideologies, but to theories of communality and collective agency as well. I use the term “vernacular” to cut across generic categories that needlessly separate closely related acts of imaginative writing. A vernacular also denotes locality and highlights performance. The elaboration of a vernacular Columbia, then, aims to contest the critically privileged genre of the novel for understanding the cultures of post-revolutionary America. Against the novel-form, I focus on the eighteenth-century, Anglo-American theater to explore alternative modes of cultural practice. I draw on a theoretical foundation that aims to understand the situational agency of cultural products and their producers. Chapters that follow include attention to Philip Freneau, Susanna Rowson, William Dunlap, Charles Brockden Brown, and Leonora Sansay.]
DURAN Ortiz, Luis A. Caracterizacion Morfologica Y Molecular De Variedades Criollas De Habichuela (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) De Origen Andino Procedentes Del Caribe (Spanish text, Haiti, Dominican Republic). Pages: 00105. Degree: M.S. Institution: University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico) 0553. Year: 2002. SUBJECT(S): Agriculture, Agronomy; Biology, Genetics. SOURCE: MAI, 41, no. 03 (2002): p. 709. ACCESSION #: AAI1411641. [ABSTRACT: The morphological and molecular characteristics of 55 Andean bean lines from the Caribbean region were compared with 10 Andean bean lines from other regions. RAPD's obtained using 24 decamer primers and differences regarding leaf, pod, life cycle, yield and plant structure were used to estimate phylogenetic relationships among the lines. Euclidean distances and dendrograms were obtained for morphological and molecular data using single, complete, and average clustering methods. Eighty-three percent (20) of the primers effectively amplified DNA. DNA amplifications generated 29 polymorphic bands out of 181 bands produced. The number of bands per primer varied from five to fifteen with an average of 9.05. The average number of polymorphic bands per primer was 1.93. DNA polymorphisms (in coupling and repulsion) and morphological traits distinguished Haitian landraces as a homogenous distinct group. Their morphological profiles resemble more the Mesoamerican gene pool, suggesting a possible introgression with black seed Mesoamerican landraces cultivated in Haiti. Three landraces from Dominican Republic (Chijar 35, H. Valle 24 and Vason 25) collected near the Haitian border were grouped with the Haitian lines due to their morphological and band profile similarities. This suggests possible introgression with Haitian landraces.]
EDMONDSON, Philip N. The St. DomingueLegacy In Black Activist And Antislavery Writings In The United States, 1791--1862. Pages: 00363. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: University of Maryland College Park 0117. Year: 2003. SUBJECT(S): Literature, american; Black studies; History, United States. SOURCE: DAI, 64, no. 12A (2003): p. 4463. ACCESSION #: AAI3115694. [ABSTRACT: This dissertation argues that the free black activist and white antislavery representations and political uses of the St. Domingue slave rebellion constitute a significant but neglected transnational expression of antebellum black literary history. There are five chapters in this dissertation. Chapter 1 presents evidence that the U.S. press published positive representations of the St. Domingue rebels, particularly the free people of color. The accounts provide a context for readings of works by black activist Prince Hall and white jurist St. George Tucker, the first antislavery writers to incorporate the rebellion into their opposing views on the future of free blacks in the nation. Chapter 2 presents readings of works by early white antislavery writers Charles Brockden Brown and Leonora Sansay, who used the rebellion to mount their cultural critiques of the limited mentalities of Atlantic male national characters. Chapter 3 examines the historiographic formation and retellings of a St. Domingue legacy in the black and antislavery presses by prominent activists and antislavery writers. Chapter 4 considers St. Domingue in the literary imagination of William Wells Brown, whose retellings of the rebellion in fiction and histories served as indicators of his shifting color politics of male representation. Chapter 5 investigates the writing of James T. Holly whose use of this legacy to promote emigration to Haiti met opposition from black leaders with competing political agendas. The chapter discusses the public debate between Holly and his critics, James McCune Smith, Martin Delany, and Mary Ann Shadd Cary, which was covered in the Weekly Anglo African from 1861 to 1862. The larger goal of this dissertation is to trace the antebellum discursive formation of a St. Domingue legacy, its narrative retellings, arguments, and rhetorical strategies, to support black identity transformation and social advancement.]
EDWARDS, Allen George, Jr. Trois romancières Noires, Trois Dimilitudes Fans Les Représentations Fictives De La Condition féminine En Afrique Et Aux Antilles (French Text, Calixthe Beyala, Cameroon, Edwidge Danticat, Haiti, Myriam Warner-Vieyra, Guadeloupe). Pages: 00258. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: The University of British Columbia ( Canada ) 2500. Year: 2003. SUBJECT(S): Literature, modern; Literature, african. SOURCE: DAI, 64, no. 12A (2003): p. 4458. ACCESSION #: AAINQ86066. [ABSTRACT: African and Caribbean literatures written by women had their beginnings during the fifties, but did not find firmer literary anchoring until the seventies. They have now come into their own, significantly changing the intransigent view of the established patriarchal literary canon. Through the use of spaces attributed to women (the kitchen and the bedroom) and roles assigned to them by an androcratic society, writers such as Calixthe Beyala, Edwidge Danticat and Myriam Warner-Vieyra have brought to light the socio-cultural condition of the African and Caribbean woman. Their works illustrate how women are the keepers, yet the prisoners of tradition. They demonstrate the juxtaposition of modernity with the aforementioned tradition, showing how women are left in a socio-cultural limbo, having rather stark choices when it comes to mastering their lives, not to mention finding equal social footing with their masculine counterparts.
Beyala, Danticat, and Warner-Vieyra textually demonstrate socio-cultural dilemmas which women must confront. The women they represent must also indicate ways in which to achieve their “becoming” without putting either their aspirations of freedom or what they perceive to be their womanhood in jeopardy. Using a spatio-socio-cultural approach tempered with consideration of the formalistic aspects of their work, our intention is to show how these writers depict women on the verge of revolt, or in revolt as well as those classified as phallocratic, all of whom underscore the necessity for feminine harmony and collectivity if success in enhancing the condition of women on both the social and cultural levels is to be achieved. These writers illustrate avenues of freedom that are extraordinarily non-traditional in their perception and execution: notably madness and prostitution. These authoresses, and many others of their ilk, have chosen the power of the word as their arm of socio-cultural empowerment and are doing much to change the status of not only African and Caribbean women, but women in general.]
EIKENAAR, Marie-Geralde. L'enfant Dans La Littérature Francophone Des Antilles---Guadeloupe, Haiti, Martinique---Et De La Guyane Française (French text). Pages: 00182. Degree: D.A. Institution: State University of New York at Stony Brook 0771. Year: 2003. SUBJECT(S): language, modern. SOURCE: DAI, 64, no. 06A (2003): p. 2089. ACCESSION #: AAI3093467. [ABSTRACT: Cette «dissertation» a été conçue comme un outil pédagogique réunissant des textes littéraires d'auteurs francophones de la Guadeloupe, de la Guyane, d'Haïti et de la Martinique. Il s'adresse aux élèves de niveau «high school» et «college». Afin de susciter l'intérêt immédiat des jeunes, j'ai réuni des auteurs et des textes qui dépeignent l'enfant et les problèmes de l'enfance.
Ainsi les textes présentés ici, et qui sont tous accompagnés de «footnotes», en même temps qu'ils mèneront à l'amélioration générale du niveau de français des élèves, leur fourniront le vocabulaire nécessaire pour discuter en classe des ques tions concernant les rapports avec les parents et les adultes, l'éducation familiale et scolaire, la recherche d'une identité, ainsi que l'adaptation à des milieux culturels dif férents. Parmi un très grand nombre d'auteurs et d'œuvres importantes j'ai choisi: Le cœur à rire et à pleurer de Maryse Condé, Pigment de Léon-Gontran Damas, Gouverneurs de la Rosée de Jacques Roumain, Fils de Misère de Marie-Thérèse Colimon, Une enfance créole de Patrick Chamoiseau, et La rue Cases Nègres de Joseph Zobel. Chaque section suit le même schéma: (1) Survol géographique et historique du pays. (2) Présentation de l'auteur: biographie. (3) Répondez aux questions. (4) Interprétons. (5) Brève présentation de l'œuvre. (6) Texte de l'extrait. (7) Les mots à retenir. (8) Les synonymes. (9) Les antonymes. (10) Avez-vous bien compris? (11) Discutons. (12) Écrivons. (13) Surfons sur le Net.
En fin de document, j'ai ajouté: (1) un «glossaire des mots créoles et des créolismes»; (2) en annexe (A, B, C, D) une définition de la Francophonie; la langue créole; la Négritude, l'Antillanité et la Créolité et la Pédagogie (Methodology).
Ces textes serviront, je l'espère, à donner aux enseignants et aux élèves un aperçu de la richesse et de la diversité que l'on trouve dans la littérature francophone des Antilles et de la Guyane et à montrer que, loin d'être secondaire, celle-ci enri chit aujourd'hui la littérature de la Métropole d'un sang nouveau, tant sur le fond que dans la forme.]
FENEL, Pierre. PEER INTERACTION IN THE HAITIAN PUBLIC SCHOOL CONTEXT (Version pdf, 212 KB) 2005. Pages: 102.
M.A.T. School for International Training 2005.
The purpose of this paper is to define peer interaction and its major components. It identifies and examines the major challenges that language teachers in Haiti will face in incorporating peer interaction within the Haitian public school context. It explains the advantages of using peer interaction as a way to generate knowledge. The author concludes by providing practical guidelines and strategies of how to cope with these challenges and describing what he has learned from his research.
Since language is learned mainly through interaction with other learners and speakers of that language, this paper aims at persuading Haitian language teachers break out of the traditional ways of language teaching to promote language learning in authentic language environments. After spending seven years learning a language, students find it difficult holding even a five-minute conversation in the target language. If students do not learn the way teachers teach, it is logical that teachers teach the way students learn. One effective technique we can use to reach this goal is peer interaction. With this powerful technique, which allows students take responsibility for their own learning and develop their own inner criteria, they will end up communicating in the target language through interaction with one another.
FRENDAK-BLUME, Allison M. United States Military Chaplains On The Ground In Today's Peace Operations: Somalia, Haiti, And Bosnia. Pages: 00622. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: George Mason University 0883. Year: 2004. SUBJECT(S): Political Science; International Law and Relations. SOURCE: DAI, 65, no. 02A (2004): p. 689. ACCESSION #: AAI3123117. [ABSTRACT: This research set out to explore the role peacekeepers might play in post-Cold War peace operations and focused on the religious figures who accompanied national contingents into a mission area. Sixty-eight US military chaplains who had deployed with US peacekeepers to Somalia, Haiti, and Bosnia were interviewed. A first-level analysis focused on the activities chaplains' performed during these operations, the intent behind performance if an activity involved the local population, how chaplains felt their involvement addressed the conflict in the particular country, and whether the chaplains believed there was potential for greater involvement in future peace operations due to their standing as religious figures. A second level of analysis was conducted by matching up roles depicted in the transcripts with those detailed in peacekeeper, third-party, and religious figure literature. Both analyses were carried out on an individual case basis. A third level of analysis was achieved through comparison across cases.]
FLECHIER, Rony. Implantation Des Normes Environnementales Lors Du Design D'une Usine De Recyclage De Papier-carton (French text). Pages: 00132. Degree: M.Sc.A. Institution: Université de Moncton ( Canada ) 1111. Year: 2003. SUBJECT(S): ---. SOURCE: MAI, 42, no. 02 (2003): p. 655. ACCESSION #: AAIMQ83306. [ABSTRACT: Le papier est une matière essentielle à la croissance de l'économie et au développement de la société. Les principales matières pouvant être utilisées pour sa fabrication sont les arbres, les déchets de papiers et tout autre déchet contenant des fibres de celluloses. Après son utilisation, le papier constitue un déchet, et, s'il n'est pas géré à ce stade ultime, il participera malheureusement, comme tout autre déchet, à la contamination de l'écosystème. Il faut penser à éliminer de façon avantageuse toute forme de déchets, notamment par leur recyclage. Le processus de recyclage contribue à la protection de l'environnement et à la création d'emplois et de revenus dans les industries de transformation. Ce travail de recherche vise donc deux objectifs principaux: (1) Etudier les paramètres techniques influençant l'implantation d'une usine de recyclage de déchets de papiers-cartons pour solutionner le problème de gestion des déchets solides auquel fait face la région métropolitaine de Port-au-Prince, Haïti. (2) Développer une stratégie d'intégration des critères environnementaux dans le fonctionnement de l'usine de recyclage. (Abstract shortened by UMI.) ]
FONROSE, Marie Cecile. A Survey Of Domestic Violence In Haiti: Breaking The Silence. Pages: 00153. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center 0795. Year: 2003. SUBJECT(S): Women's Studies; Sociology, Ethnic And Racial Studies; Sociology, Individual And Family Studies. SOURCE: DAI, 64, no. 08A (2003): p. 3105. ACCESSION #: AAI3103348. [ABSTRACT: This dissertation reports on an examination that was conducted to determine the prevalence and incidence of domestic violence in Haiti. The researcher used the revised Conflict Tactic Scale (CTS2) developed by Strauss and Gelles in 1986 to sample 150 women residing in Port-au-Prince in the city of Pétion-Ville in subsections of Berthe, Delmas, Bossier, and Peguy-Ville. The CTS2 was used to measure the prevalence and incidence of 5 levels of partner abuse: physical aggression, psychological aggression, sexual coercion, injury, and negotiation. A second questionnaire developed by the researcher was used to determine how Haitian women view domestic violence. The participants were between the ages of 18 and 49 and had been or were in a relationship with a partner in the 12 months preceding the study.
The descriptive results show that 54.8% of the women experienced physical abuse, 57.2% reported psychological aggression, 56.2% dealt with sexual coercion, 53.1% reported injury, and 79.9% were able to use negotiation in their relationship. Further analysis of the data revealed that men also experienced violence to a lesser degree.
Qualitative results indicated that 53% believe that violence has no place in society; it is shameful and abnormal. An additional 15% agree that a man has the right to correct his wife. The study addresses the implications of the findings and summarizes recommendations for future research.]
FRANCOIS, Irline. Geographies Of The Mind: Gender, Memory, Emigration And Exile In Caribbean Women's Narratives. Pages: 00252. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: Boston University 0017. Year: 2001. SUBJECT(S): Literature, Comparative; Women's Studies. SOURCE: DAI, 62, no. 01A (2001): p. 157. ACCESSION #: AAI3001495. [ABSTRACT: Focusing on themes of emigration, exile, dispossession and female identity in selected novels by Caribbean women writers from Guadeloupe, Martinique, Haiti and Antigua, I argue that the different sociopolitical regimes under which these writers evolved affect their writing in distinct ways. These regimes consist of three types of governance: (1) French departmentalization, which affords a semblance of self-determination while an imperial power maintains hegemonic control over its former colonies, (2) a highly personalized dictatorial regime, (3) British colonialism. Each type espouses dissimilar ideologies, and objectives. As a result, these governments affect the writers' experiences of their homelands and cultures, influencing each writer's psychosocial formation and the reasons for emigrating.
I also demonstrate that the migrant condition in these writings is shaped by each writer's position in the social structure of the homeland. I thus examine how and why gender, color, and class construct are likely to mediate the writers, regime and emigre experience in turn. Migration is uniquely lived in these texts: in Myriam Warner-Vieyra's Juletane (1982) and Suzanne Dracius-Pinalie's L'autre qui danse (1989), it is an attempt to fill a spiritual and emotional void brought about the assimilationist policies of French departmentalization; in Jan J (Gigi) Dominique's Mémoire d'une amnésique (1984), it is a means to rebuild an identity which has been alienated by the dictatorship; In Jamaica Kincaid's Lucy (1991) it is a means to purge the self from the structures and values of the British colonial system and assert a personality of one's own. Thus, the factors that influence the selected novels include personal history, gender, color and class, all of which combine to deny, threaten or nurture self-knowledge.]
GHACHEM, Malick Walid. Sovereignty And Slavery In The Age Of Revolution: Haitian Variations On A Metropolitan Theme. Pages: 00417 Degree: Ph.D. Institution: Stanford University 0212. Year: 2002. SUBJECT(S): History, European; History, Latin American; Law. SOURCE: DAI, 63, no. 01A (2002): p. 324. ACCESSION #: AAI3038094. [ABSTRACT: This thesis provides an account of the politics of slavery in the eighteenth-century French colony of Saint-Domingue ( Haiti ). It analyzes the central tensions in the colony's administrative history as case studies of an overarching theme: the nature of slavery as an institution torn between “private” and “public” law. At the same time, the dissertation uses those tensions to form one interpretation of the colonial origins of the Haitian Revolution.
The governance of slavery in Saint-Domingue was characterized by a complex and sometimes competitive relationship between two forms of “absolutism”: the “domestic” sovereignty of planters and the public sovereignty of the royal administration. Part One of the dissertation explores this competition with reference to the regulation of manumission and the question of planter brutality. In these contexts the interests of “public order” and the principle of private dominion clashed, leading the authorities to impose restrictions that the planters typically rejected as a violation of their domestic prerogatives.
Part Two of the dissertation focuses on the tension between membership and autonomy that dominated colonial pamphlet literature after the end of the Seven Years' War in 1763. The nature of French sovereignty over Saint-Domingue in this period was hotly debated in connection with the monarchy's efforts to reform the mercantile trading regime. The question of whether the colonists could assert the privileges of metropolitan membership while claiming the benefits of commercial autonomy was also raised by the movement to enact a code of laws compatible with the interests of “local custom.” In both cases, slavery aggravated the general uncertainty over what it meant for an overseas territory to belong to the French state.
The final part of the thesis begins with an account of the most publicized case of planter brutality in the colony's history, which brought the conflict between domestic authority and public order to the fore only months before the convening of the Estates General. The planters' subsequent decision to seek representation in the metropole renewed that Old Regime competition once again and proved to be one of the critical turning points in the path to the colonial revolution.]
GILLES, Jean-Elie. Patriotism, Humanism And modernity: Three European Concepts As A Basis For The Investigation And Affirmation Of The Negro Soul In Francophone Literature Of Haiti From The Nineteenth Through The Late Twentieth Century (French text, Antenor Firmin, Hannibal Price, III, Pompee Valentin, Baron De Vastey, Jean Price-Mars). Pages: 00350. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: University of Washington 0250. Year: 2002. SUBJECT(S): Literature, Romance. SOURCE: DAI, 63, no. 01A (2002): p. 204. ACCESSION #: AAI3041026. [ABSTRACT: An analysis is presented of the concepts of patriotism, humanism and modernity and how they constituted the political means by which the first three governments of the newly evolving republic of Haiti, lead by Dessalines, Christophe and Pétion, fashioned the thoughts of the Haitian intellectuals. Through publication of such works as, De l'egalité des races humaines, by Anténor Firmin, De la rehabilitation de la race noire par la République d'Haïti by Hannibal Price III, Le Système colonial dévoilé by Baron de Vastey, and Ainsi parla l'oracle by Jean Price-Mars, Haitian writers chastised the elite and politicians of Haiti and other countries, for neglecting the state's welfare, and for giving the rest of the world added fuel for the notion that the black race is inferior. However, it was through their literary efforts which embraced, romanticism, indigenism, negritude, surrealism, and marvelous-reality, whereby Haitian intellectuals would overcome racial alienation and persuade the world, and their own countrymen, that Haitians could and should have a voice in the concert of nations.
These literary efforts lead to the conclusion that where European patriotism was the path to democracy, Haitian patriotism was and is the path to a humane life founded on the rejection of racism which prevailed against colonized people of color in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Where European humanism is principally the art of living, speaking, and dying well, Haitian humanism is simply the path through the spoken or written word to the humanity of the colonized man. Where European modernity may produce a feeling of superiority of the younger generation over former ones, Haitian modernity has as its goal to re-establish the value of the black peoples' past and to defend and advance the black race.
The analysis concludes with a discussion of “creolity” as an emerging-world language which is shown to encompass the three concepts of patriotism, humanism and modernity. That is, to speak of one is to speak of the others, and that universality is precisely what should assure Haitian literature a place in the literary community of the Caribbean and the world.]
GIRARD, Philippe R. The Eagle And The Rooster: The 1994 United States Invasion Of Haiti (Jean-Bertrand Aristide, Bill Clinton). Pages: 00333. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: Ohio University 0167. Year: 2002. SUBJECT(S): History, Modern; History, Latin American. SOURCE: DAI, 64, no. 04A (2002): p. 1365. ACCESSION #: AAI3086331. [ABSTRACT: This dissertation studies the 1994 U.S. intervention in Haiti, focusing on causation (why did Bill Clinton decide to intervene in Haiti ?) and consequences (what did the United States and the United Nations achieve from 1994 to 2001?).
Regarding U.S. motives, the dissertation argues that economics and ideology played secondary roles in convincing the Clinton administration to intervene in Haiti. Restoring U.S. and presidential credibility; stopping the flow of Haitian refugees; securing the political support of the Congressional Black Caucus; and responding to demands by Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide were the decisive factors. Regarding consequences, the dissertation views the U.S./U.N. occupation as a political and economic failure. U.S. occupation forces, particularly during the first few months following the 1994 intervention, limited themselves to basic law and order, often with the help of former Haitian soldiers. Political strife soon resumed. A politically divided Haitian government refused to approve economic reforms requested by foreign donors and thus failed to seize this opportunity to better the economic lot of most Haitians.
Sources for the dissertation are: World Bank, IMF, UN, OAS, U.S., and Haitian internal government documents; documents obtained under the Freedom of Information Act; interviews with participants; published government documents; U.S., Haitian, French, Canadian, and Venezuelan newspapers and magazines; and secondary literature.]
GLOVER, Kaiama L. Spiralisme and antillanite: Constructions of the real and the ideal in later twentieth century fiction of the French-speaking Caribbean (Edouard Glissant, Martinique, Frankétienne, Jean-Claude Fignolé, René Philoctète, Haiti). Pages: 00255. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: Columbia University 0054. Year: 2002. SUBJECT(S): ---. SOURCE: DAI, 62, no. 12A (2002): p. 4173. ACCESSION #: AAI3037707. [ABSTRACT: This thesis offers a discussion of spiralisme and of its contribution to the domain of Francophone Caribbean letters during the latter half of the twentieth century. In a literary universe dominated by “big voices” from the French overseas department of Martinique, the Haitian-born spiralisme has long remained ignored in, underappreciated by, and excluded from discussion among Francophonists. My project sets out to rectify this situation, not only by offering a thorough presentation of the Spiralist novel in and of itself, but also, and perhaps more importantly, by integrating spiralisme into a larger postcolonial Caribbean context. Specifically, this thesis establishes the validity and the value of the Spiralist perspective through a comparative analysis of spiralisme and the far better known antillanité. Indisputably one of the most profoundly influential and coherent Caribbean socio-aesthetic philosophies of the past century, Édouard Glissant's antillanité has consistently been posited by theorists as a veritable reference point in the domain of Caribbean social and literary theory. It is indeed in recognition of antillanité 's significance that I have implicated it in this evaluation of spiralisme, a similarly-intentioned aesthetic philosophy that has suffered a quite dissimilar critical fate.
Writers Frankétienne, Jean-Claude Fignolé, and René Philoctète formulated the concept of spiralisme as a response to philosophical concerns analogous to those that preoccupied Glissant at the time of his elaboration of antillanité. With the fact of these shared motivations in mind, I have effected a systematic examination of three principal components of the novel—the configuration of characters, the presentation of time and space, and the use of language—in an effort to elucidate and compare the defining characteristics of the novels of Frankétienne, Fignolé, Philoctète, and Glissant. In this analysis, I have established spiralisme 's position relative to Glissant's antillanité, emphasizing specific points of commonality and difference. It is my contention that the works of the three Spiralists challenge, or respond differently to, a number of the expectations and assumptions revealed in Glissant's literary production, and have the potential to redefine the way in which the critical appreciation of Francophone Caribbean literature has been constructed up until now.]
Goldberg, David M. Evaluating The Emergence Of A Democratic Regime Of The Americas: Evolving Norms And Changing Standards (Haiti, Peru, Guatemala, Dominican Republic, Paraguay, Venezuela). Pages: 00234. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: Northern Illinois University 0162. Year: 2003. SUBJECT(S): Political Science, General; Political Science, International Law And Relations. SOURCE: DAI, 64, no. 05A (2003): p. 1829. ACCESSION #: AAI3092254. [ABSTRACT: This dissertation evaluates the performance of the Democratic Regime of the Americas. A comparative case study approach is used to examine seven cases: Haiti 1991, Peru 1992, Guatemala 1993, Dominican Republic 1994, Paraguay 1996, Peru 2000, Venezuela 2001. Each case represents an interruption in procedural democracy and a variety of responses domestically, from the regional and international community. To explain the development of the regime I compare and contrast three theoretical approaches. Realism, liberalism and social constructivism are useful to varying degrees in explaining the development of the Democratic Regime of the Americas. Each perspective highlights various strengths and weaknesses of the Democratic Regime of the Americas.
The objectives of the case studies are: (1) to describe the background and components of the Democratic Regime of the Americas, (2) to evaluate how the regime evolved over the two decades encompassed by the seven case studies. The regime affected the outcome of the cases and was shaped by the events rather than a causal arrow flowing solely in one direction. In several of the cases the regime was weak or ineffectual in restoring procedural democracy while in others various components of the regime interacted to exert a powerful and lasting influence.
The core argument is that a consensus around procedural democracy has developed in the scholarly community as well as in policy-making circles. The difficulty has come in operationalizing those norms when democracy is threatened. What the cases illustrate is the distance traveled in the development of the consensus and the substantial obstacles that remain. ]
HAHN, April Diane. Congress, Domestic Values And United States Policy In Latin America And The Caribbean. Pages: 00482. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: University of Virginia 0246. Year: 2003. SUBJECT(S): Political Science; International Law And Relations. ACCESSION. SOURCE: No: AAI3108755. [ABSTRACT: This study asserts that domestic values inform U.S. policy in Latin America and the Caribbean. Two normative processes enable the United States Congress to translate these values into policy and promote democracy and human rights in the Western Hemisphere. First, legislators imbue or are influenced by domestic values and, second, they use the legislative process to render them into policy. The thesis is operationalized through an evaluation of the foreign aid contract in El Salvador, Haiti and Peru, where Congress uses the legislative process to create guidelines for countries seeking U.S. assistance. Findings indicate that whether U.S interests were provoked through the security threat of communism or drugs, or the humanitarian issue of immigration or racial equality, Congress often demonstrated the normative will and the political capacity to harness legislative and non-legislative mechanisms that aimed to integrate the values of democracy and human rights into policy. This interaction between values, Congress and U.S. policy highlights the significant role of Congress in U.S. policy in the region. The focus on agency, values and the various informants in policy decisions introduces an eclectic approach to the theoretical evaluation of U.S. policy in the Western Hemisphere.]
HAZEL, Risa Marie. Voodoo And The Failure To Know In Some Contemporary American Narratives. Pages: 00155. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: University of Minnesota 0130. Year: 2001. SUBJECT(S): Literature, American. SOURCE: DAI, 62, no. 03A (2001): p. 1019. ACCESSION #: AAI3008695. [ABSTRACT: Voodoo occupies a problematic if not paradoxical position in the North American cultural psyche, where it questions the singularity of Western origins. The sense of a solid identity that voodoo disrupts, however, is often recuperated in narratives that incorporate it. This dissertation analyzes these narratives in terms of the play between knowing and not knowing that partial disruption produces in several American narratives. That is, it looks at how epistemological blind spots created by voodoo can sustain, cover up, or at times partially resolve paradoxes surrounding identity. By so doing, the dissertation investigates one trajectory of how voodoo participates in the veiling/revealing of a core dividedness within Western subjectivity. Because of voodoo's roots in places such as Haiti, traces of the historical relations between that country—including the history of slavery and European colonialism, black and white struggles for independence, notions of superiority and the denial of the other of racism—are woven into the narratives. These traces are visible in the narratives as political, psychological, and ontological uncertainty, which I call knowing and not knowing. The narratives are primarily North American novels, films, and short stories, as well as some ethnographies. The ethnographies (by Katherine Dunham and Wade Davis) illustrate how voodoo prefigures the authors' failure to step inside some knotty aspects of Haitian peasant culture. Some novels (including Manuel Puig's and Kathy Acker's) link voodoo to the impossibility of taking constructive political action, while others (including John Berendt's and Russell Banks' works) dramatize voodoo-related gaps in self-knowledge that throw individual characters into social-psychological dilemmas. In William Gibson's cybertrilogy, the analysis moves to a special case of cosmo-ontological uncertainty in which an Artificial Intelligence, having taken over the world, then takes on the borderline anarchic form of voodoo loa (or spirits). Finally, the dissertation analyzes the provocative ideas proposed in Ishmael Reed's Mumbo Jumbo that a conspiracy against voodoo has long driven Western Civilization, and that voodoo had a rare—though unrealized—opportunity in the 1920s Jazz Age to break free of the constraints that the conspiracy imposes.]
HIDALGO, Dennis Ricardo. From North America T Hispaniola: First Free Black Emigration And Settlements In Hispaniola (Haiti, Dominican Republic). Pages: 00222. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: Central Michigan University 6006. Year: 2003. SUBJECT(S): Business administration, marketing; History, United States; Religion, general. SOURCE: DAI, 64, no. 06A (2003): p. 2175. ACCESSION #: AAI3094671. [ABSTRACT: This archival study focuses on philanthropy and missionary activities concerning free blacks that settled in Haiti. From 1824 to 1826 about six thousand free blacks departed from the United States to settle on the multipart island of Hispaniola. The literature concerning this affair has emphasized its relationship to Black Nationalism in the United States or to the remnant community in the island. The present study differs from the little published work about the immigrants by analyzing the crossing of racial and cultural lines by those whites who aided the free blacks in the immigration and settlement processes. Loring Dewey helped organize the immigration in opposition to powerful interests. In researching the archival documents pertaining to his story this study found Cardy's identity challenged when he glimpsed the blacks' condition. A similar experience, this research found, happened to William Cardy, a British missionary that lived among the immigrants after their settlement in Hispaniola. He felt detached from his homeland after a series of personal crises, and as a result, moved closer to those he tried to convert. This study was based on research done in archives in Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, United Kingdom, and the United States.]
HIGGINS, MaryEllen. Questions Of Apprenticeship In African And Caribbean Narratives: Gender, Journey, And Development (Mansour Sora Wade, Djibril Diop Mambety, Senegal, Edwidge Danticat, Haiti, Esmeralda Santiago, Puerto Rico, Ingrid Sinclair, Zimbabwe, Assia Djebar, Algeria). Pages: 00189. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: The University of Texas at Austin 0227. Year: 2001. SUBJECT(S): Literature, Comparative Literature, African; Cinema; Women's Studies. SOURCE: DAI, 62, no. 11A (2001): p. 3771. ACCESSION #: AAI3034547. [ABSTRACT: Questions of Apprenticeship in African and Caribbean Narratives: Gender, Journey, and Development examines African and Caribbean narratives that follow the apprenticeships of young protagonists while simultaneously critiquing postcolonial development politics. The novels and films studied represent three important dimensions of global journeys: the flight to cities within Africa, emigration from the Caribbean to the American metropolis, and African women's journeys the battlefields of national independence struggles. Inspired by interactions with African scholars while on fellowship in Senegal, chapter one demonstrates that two Wolof-language films—Mansour Sora Wade's Picc Mi and Djibril Diop Mambetys La petite vendeuse de soleil —counter dominant discourses of global development. In addition, Wade and Mambety underscore the absence of choice for growing numbers of Senegalese urban children. Chapter two investigates how Edwidge Danticat's Breath, Eyes, Memory and Esmeralda Santiago's When I Was Puerto Rican challenge cosmopolitanism and theories of the Bildungsroman where the indigenous home is frequently represented as a place from which one must escape, as a situation the successfully “developed” protagonist must transcend. In contrast, these novels use liberating stories from Haiti and Puerto Rico to interpret the protagonists' experiences in the metropolis. Chapter three examines Zimbabwean filmmaker Ingrid Sinclair's Flame and Algerian author Assia Djebar's Fantasia. These artists highlight women's apprenticeships as revolutionaries in African independence movements to underscore the injustice of their subsequent exclusion from post-independence politics and to protest their marginalization in the domestic sphere. My conclusion reflects upon African and Caribbean narratives of development as alternative visions of national and personal growth.]
INK, Lynn Chun. Decolonizing The Tropics: Gender And American Imperialism In The Pacific And Caribbean. Pages: 00215. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: University of Miami 0125. Year: 2001. SUBJECT(S): Literature, American; Literature, Comparative; Women's Studies. SOURCE: DAI, 62, no. 05A (2001): p. 1834. ACCESSION #: AAI3015570. [ABSTRACT: This study explores how contemporary American literature engages in processes of decolonization for the tropical island sites that were as a group subject to U.S. imperialism at the turn of the twentieth century. By combining post-colonial theories and feminist analyses of sexual difference, this dissertation examines how women writers in particular have intervened in the discourses of American imperial history to challenge the construction of imperial practices as masculinized, By staging various forms of gender transgressions, role reversals, acts of gender exploitation and of violence, contemporary American women writers have spoken to the complexity of imperial relations that remain noticeably absent from histories of American imperialism and its legacy in global discourse. Their literary responses have demonstrated how imperialism and gender interact. Gender emerges as not only an appropriate mechanism for critique, but also an essential consideration in analyzing the workings of imperialism because relations between men and women and imperialist power dynamics are intimately related. These writers therefore expose how imperialism is enabled through gender as a performative act, confirming that the articulation and perpetuation of sex roles sustain imperial activities.
By challenging imperial history and responding to a tradition that excluded or ignored the perspectives of women as well as the subjectivities of gender, race, class, and sexuality, contemporary American women writers-including Julia Alvarez, Edwidge Danticat, Kiana Davenport, Rosario Ferré, Jessica Hagedorn, and Esmeralda Santiago—create their own anti-imperial discourse that engages in the project of decolonization for the islands. This discourse addresses imperial history's erasures and omissions and endeavors to revise representations of the Pacific and Caribbean islands—including Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Hawai'i, the Philippines, and Puerto Rico—that were once together constructed as an overseas American frontier that served as the site of American imperial difference and thus the foundation of American national identity. I therefore demonstrate that anti-imperial literature recuperates history and re-imagines identity for the tropical islands by radically revising the conceptual framework through which we view the past and decolonizing cultures.]
ISAAC, Lionel. Carbon And Nitrogen Cycling In Alley Cropping Systems In Haiti. Pages: 00140. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: Auburn University 0012. Year: 2001. SUBJECT(S): Agriculture, Soil Science; Agriculture, Agronomy. SOURCE: DAI, 62, no. 01B (2001): p. 17. ACCESSION #: AAI3002893. [ABSTRACT: Alley cropping, the growing of crops between rows of leguminous trees or shrubs, has been used to sustain crop yields in the tropics. The objectives of this study were (i) to assess suitability of tree species as hedgerows for alley cropping in terms of amounts and rates of N release in three environments, (ii) to assess effects of hedgerow management on soil C and N dynamics and (iii) to determine optimum hedgerow management that improves maize ( Zea mays ) yield and N-recovery.
Five hedgerow species were selected on the basis of biomass yields for C loss and N release studies at each site. Species differed in C loss and N release patterns within sites. Initial leaf N concentrations correlated with C loss (phase I) whereas (lignin + polyphenol):N correlated negatively with N release rates (phase II).
Application of prunings of Leucaena leucocephala and Delonix regia (calcareous site) Leucaena hybrid (basaltic site) and Acacia angustissima (high elevation) led to greater soil organic N than in control plots after 5 years. Stem-amended soils showed similar N mineralization among treatments within sites.
Cumulative effects of Leucaena hedgerow management (pruning utilization by pruning regimes) on soil organic C and N dynamics were determined. Pruning application had greater organic C and N and potential mineralization than the control in the 0–5 cm soil layer. Addition of fertilizer did not increase soil organic C and N but, enhanced soil N mineralization.
Application of Leucaena prunings increased maize yield and grain N uptake. Yield declined over seasons in the control and where prunings were removed. Addition of inorganic fertilizer increased further yields and N-recovery by maize. Over seasons, three-cut regime had higher maize yields and better % N-recovery than the two-cut regimes. Low N-recovery under the two cuts made at planting and 40 DAP indicated tendency for N immobilization under this pruning regime. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)]
JAMES, Erica Caple. The Violence Of Misery: "Insecurity" In Haiti In The "Democratic" Era. Pages: 00600. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: Harvard University 0084. Year: 2003. SUBJECT(S): Anthropology, Cultural; Political Science, International Law And Relations; Health Sciences, Physical Therapy. SOURCE: DAI, 64, no. 05A (2003): p. 1730. ACCESSION #: AAI3091587. [ABSTRACT: This dissertation analyzes how poor Haitians who were targeted by egregious acts of organized violence during the coup years of 1991–1994 in Haiti have been able to cope with ongoing ensekirite (insecurity) in the neo-modern era of “democracy.” Through twenty-six months of fieldwork in three different sites, I explore the international, national and community-level responses to the plight of “traumatized” Haitian victims of human rights violations, asking how those victims are configured as the objects of the bureaucratic discourses of feminism, bio-medicine, law/human rights, and democratic development in the so-called “postconflict” period. The assistance extended to “victims” (or viktim, as they call themselves) is explicitly bio-political, and I contextualize it within a history of multiple interventions by governmental and nongovernmental agencies that have attempted (and continue to attempt) to consolidate democracy and the rule of law in Haiti.
Haitians are not passive consumers of these institutional languages. The study also evaluates the tactics by which Haitian viktim adopt, reject or manipulate these discourses and bureaucratic practices—at times quite violently—in their efforts to gain political recognition and to rebuild their lives. A central focus of my research is on the strategies for individual and family care and survival that emerge in spite of the ontological insecurity that permeates day-to-day life in Haiti. The thesis argues that many of these strategies reproduce the historical “predatory” practices that pro-democracy activists have fought to eradicate in their quest for democracy.]
JEAN, Christine. Parent Education Training For Haitian Parents: A Program Design. Pages: 00094. Degree: Psy.D. Institution: Carlos Albizu University 1355. Year: 2002. SUBJECT(S): Psychology, Clinical; Sociology, Ethnic And Racial Studies; Education, Adult And Continuing. SOURCE: DAI, 63, no. 11B (2002): p. 5520. ACCESSION #: AAI3069562. [ABSTRACT: Despite the vast amount of childrearing research available, there is a scarcity of research and very little literature on child rearing practices among people of different cultures, especially newer immigrants to the U.S. (GoPaul-McNichol, 1998; McPherson-Blake, 1991). Among some of the newer immigrants are the Haitian immigrants currently living in states such as Florida, New York and Massachusetts in greater numbers than before. In South Florida, for example, residents of “Little Haiti,” in Miami, have seen significant increases in criminal activity in the past ten years (Center for Haitian Studies, 2002).
It is also essential that an individual's cultural beliefs and attitudes be carefully examined when determining the causes of his/her behaviors. Likewise, it is crucial that when devising methods to help people from different cultures, mental health professionals take the individual's cultural identity into consideration, design methods that are flexible, and have specific didactic and experiential knowledge of the client's culture (Gopaul-McNicols, Benjamin-Dartigue, and Francois, 1998; Giles, 1990). In order to successfully work with people of other cultures, in this case Haitians, it is very useful for service providers to understand the history and the culture of Haiti. Thus, for purposes of understanding the Haitian population through historical knowledge, a brief review of the history and culture of the Haitian population including their childrearing practices and family environment, and migration to the U.S. is provided.
The goal of parent training is to, in culturally appropriate ways, teach parents tools of effective parenting, with the goal of positively alter the course of their children's lives, and subsequently impact the aggressive trend that has started in this society. A treatment approach suggested by Gopaul-McNicol (1993) in working with immigrant families is the MULTI-CMS (Multicultural/Multimodal/Multisystems) approach is used in this program. The focus is on prevention, and this is done by attempting to strengthen the family unit through education and training, and helping them utilize the resources that are available in their communities. A parenting skill training focused on prevention using the guidelines provided by Kumpfer and Tait (2000) is incorporated into this program. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)]
JEAN-LOUIS, Martin. Demande En Eau Et Evaluation Du Modèle D'analyse D'utilisation De L'eau: Avenues D'amélioration (French text). Pages: 00194. Degree: M.Sc.A. Institution: Ecole Polytechnique, Montréal ( Canada ) 1105. Year: 2001. SUBJECT(S): Engineering, civil. SOURCE: MAI, 41, no. 02 (2001): p. 583. ACCESSION #: AAIMQ71263. [ABSTRACT: This study mainly concerns the water demand and the Water Use Analysis Model (WUAM). In the first section, the principal components, the forecast methods and the management modes of the water demand were presented and analyzed. An illustration of the various components of the WUAM and two of its applications (the cases of the Yamaska and Saskatchewan-South rivers) are the focus of the second section. The third section of this paper relates to the water pricing of the Yamaska river basin. Having discussed the strengths and weaknesses of the WUAM in section four, two approaches are proposed for the design of a new water demand model. In the last section, dedicated to the examination of the WUAM potential to be applied to Haiti basins, it reveals that its application could be very useful in economic planning and in water resources management of watersheds but the model limits, the Haitian climatic context as well as the lack of socio-economic and climatic data could constitute a major handicap to the application of model. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)]
JEAN-PIERRE, Jean-Marie. United States Policy Toward Haiti, 1991--1994. Pages: 00442. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: Howard University 0088. Year: 2001. SUBJECT(S): Political Science, International Law And Relations; History, Modern; History, United States. SOURCE: DAI, 63, no. 01A (2001): p. 354. ACCESSION #: AAI3040809. [ABSTRACT: This study examines U.S. policy toward Haiti from the perspective of key U.S. policy-makers during the period between the Haitian political crisis of September 1991 and the 1994 U.S. military intervention in Haiti. It focuses on the foreign policymaking process model to determine whether U.S. policy during this period was largely effective in promoting democracy in Haiti.
Using historical research, interviews with key actors within and without the U.S. government and analyses of important congressional and executive branch documents, this study provides an account of how key decision makers and actors responded to the Haitian crisis during the Bush and the Clinton administrations.
This study argues and finds that contrary to its stated goal, U.S. policy toward Haiti, in fact, was not effective and was not successful in promoting “true” democracy. In the absence of a threat to its national security interests, the United States reacted primarily to the crisis because of its direct implications on the domestic politics of the country. From the U.S. policymakers' perspectives, Haiti 's political stability was more important than its establishment as a democracy, its stand on social justice and its protection of human rights.
My research concludes that U.S.-Haiti policy, which led to the 1994 military intervention, was largely ineffective in both formulation and implementation. The Clinton administration decided to take actions to resolve the crisis only after the liberal sectors in the government and the non-government actors, including Congressional Black Caucus members, human rights activists, religious groups and Randall Robinson of the Trans-Africa Forum, began to denounce the U.S.-Haiti policy.
The 1994 U.S. military intervention in Haiti was meaningful only as a political gesture, a means of satisfying the pressure groups and of stemming the flow of the Haitian refugees coming to the United States. In the long term, it was less expensive to return Aristide to power than to take care of the Haitian refugees. Military intervention in Haiti was not about restoring democracy to Haiti but rather about encouraging the Haitians to stay home and promoting a model of government that served U.S. interests.]
JOHNSON, Kiersten Blair. Dialectics Of Power In Society And Violence In The Home: A Comparative Analysis Of Women's Experience Of Domestic Violence In Haiti And Nicaragua. Pages: 00283. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: University of Maryland College Park 0117. Year: 2003. SUBJECT(S): Sociology, Individual And Family Studies; Sociology, Demography; Women's Studies. SOURCE: DAI, 64, no. 06A (2003): p. 2272. ACCESSION #: AAI3094500. [ABSTRACT: This dissertation seeks to assert a new theoretical approach to the study of the phenomenon of domestic violence, and through the use of this approach, discerns risk factors for the experience of domestic violence. Using data from the Demographic and Health Surveys for Haiti and Nicaragua, analyses of risk factors for domestic violence are undertaken in a comparative fashion through the use of logistic regression. A secondary analysis investigates the factors associated with the cessation of violence for Nicaragua only. The results of the analysis reinforce some previous findings regarding risk factors for domestic violence, reiterating the importance of alcohol consumption and family history of violence. However, this research also finds conflicting evidence with regard to other variables commonly assumed to be risk factors for domestic violence such as women's education and household wealth. A unique analysis on factors associated with a cessation of violence indicates that woman-centered variables are particularly important predictors of violence cessation. The general finding of this dissertation is that social factors at multiple social levels (the level of the individual, the family, the community, and the nation) influence domestic violence outcomes in the household.]
JOHNSON-LA O, Sara Elizabeth. Migrant Recitals: Pan-Caribbean Interchanges In The Aftermath Of The Haitian Revolution, 1791--1850. Pages: 00224. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: Stanford University 0212. Year: 2001. SUBJECT(S): Literature, Comparative; Black Studies; Music. SOURCE: DAI, 62, no. 10A (2001): p. 3398. ACCESSION #: AAI3028119. [ABSTRACT: This project is a comparative cultural history documenting the significance of the migrations of refugee planters, free people of color, and slaves throughout the Caribbean Basin as a result of the Haitian Revolution (1791–1804). The movement of people and ideas reflects the existence of a pan-Caribbean space where continuous interchanges occurred between subjects of different colonial empires. Although colonial policies compartmentalized the region at the political level, I argue that these communities engaged in collaborative cultural projects that provide a counter-narrative to assessments of the region that privilege nationalistic, linguistically isolated approaches. Focusing on artifacts from the early nineteenth century—newspapers, musical instruments and rhythmic figures, visual art, and personal memoirs and historical chronicles—the project explores the development of a politicized aesthetic consciousness which I describe as a “cognizance of unity.” While twentieth-century paradigms tend to examine pan-Caribbean movements as supra-national initiatives, I argue that during the colonial period this model must be reversed. Inter-island interchanges antedated and were a key component in the development of Caribbean national movements and the evolution of their corresponding artistic traditions.
Part One examines the communication networks employed by black intellectuals to promote regional consciousness during the 1830s. Chapter I focuses on three periodicals of the black press- L'Union ( Haiti ), The Colored American (the United States ), and Revue des Colonies (Paris/Martinique). Chapter II explores musical production as a performative manifestation of regional integration. Using elements from the Cuban tumba francesa, the Puerto Rican bomba, and Martinican bèlè, I propose the existence of an inter-island musical aesthetic that was at the forefront of breaking colonial barriers.
Part Two restores nationalist movements in the former Spanish colonies of Cuba and the Dominican Republic to their pan-Caribbean context. Chapter III examines the white Saint Domingue exile community in Santiago de Cuba through Pablo Armando Fernández's novel Otro golpe, de dados and Emilio Bacardí's Crónicas de Santiago de Cuba. Chapter IV employs personal memoirs and political caricatures to highlight allegiances between Haiti and the Dominican Republic. These migrant recitals document that pan-Caribbean collaboration was an ideal actively pursued in the early nineteenth century.]
KOSKI-KARELL, Daniel Arthur. Prehistoric Northern Haiti: Settlement In Diachronic Ecological Context. Pages: 00331. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: The Catholic University of America 0043. Year: 2003. SUBJECT(S): Anthropology, Archaeology; History, Latin American; Environmental Sciences. SOURCE: DAI, 63, no. 12A (2003): p. 4363. ACCESSION #: AAI3075236. [ABSTRACT: The problem addressed in this dissertation is that available archeological information on Haiti 's indigenous cultures is largely based on research more than fifty years old. New settlement survey data reveals that the country's prehistoric culture history is more complex than has been generally known. My research involves an ecological interpretive examination of settlement patterns in which the entirety of Haiti 's prehistory is divided into six cultural units. I analyze habitation types and site distribution in terms of terrestrial and underwater environmental settings.
The work focuses on Haiti 's north coast and a smaller subarea along the west-central coast. The data include the results of surface survey fieldwork and site information from Haiti 's national archeological database. I assess each cultural unit's settlement system and compare these with one another concentrating on site type distributions across topographic subareas and terrain relief zones. This includes computer processing to create three-dimensional graphic models that illustrate the relationships between these variables.
The results demonstrate that Haiti 's indigenous settlement patterns contain substantial previously unrecognized information. For example, habitation types and distributions associated with the two nonagricultural era cultural units appear incongruous even though this era has been assumed serially continuous in chronology and culture. Among other possibilities this may indicate a hiatus and that Haiti 's chronologically uncertain initial occupation, described in the literature as Paleoindian-like, may be earlier than has been thought. Another finding is that site types and distributions associated with the dawn of the prehistoric agricultural era suggest unfriendly relations between immigrant agricultural groups and resident nonagriculturalists.
Another finding that relates to later times indicates possible conflictive competition among groups in northern Haiti when Columbus arrived in 1492. My analysis suggests that warfare between these groups led to destruction of Columbus 's Fort La Navidad and contributed to the tragic decline of Hispaniola 's indigenous population that soon followed.
This research demonstrates that terrestrial and underwater investigations in Haiti can provide new information that advances knowledge of West Indies and New World prehistory. My data compilation and analytical methods may be usefully applied elsewhere to studies concerning a variety of archeological and anthropological issues.]
KOVATS-BERNAT, J. Christopher. The Impact Of Poverty, Violence And State Repression On The Cultural Identity And Social Agency Of Street Children In Port-Au-Prince, Haiti. Pages: 00378. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: Temple University 0225. Year: 2001. SUBJECT(S): Anthropology, Cultural. SOURCE: DAI, 62, no. 11A (2001): p. 3837. ACCESSION #: AAI3031538. [ABSTRACT: The impingement of extreme poverty and violence on the identity formation and cultural lives of street children in Haiti has been an overlooked phenomenon in anthropology. Sickness, scarcity, sexual abuse, armed conflict, hunger, and thirst all contribute to a set of conditions which routinize greater rates of child morbidity and child death on the street. The persistence of these conditions has been compounded by both the Haitian public and private sectors, which have come to normalize morbidity and death as the expected outcome for children who live and work on the street. When one considers that the great majority of Haiti's estimated 300,000 displaced children are sleeping, laboring, fighting, surviving, and dying in the streets of the nation's capital of Port-au-Prince, it is difficult to imagine how such a large social stratum of the civil society has been neglected by researchers who are concerned with the processes of urbanization and state formation in Haiti.
Children who are forced or choose to live and/or work in the Port-au-Prince streets enter an intensely contested space, where they must vie with stray animals and traffic, the police and the paramilitaries, gangsters and assassins, natural and supernatural hazards, and other street children for their security and welfare. Moreover, their use of the street as a home is contrary to its normative, customary use as a transitory channel for getting from one place to another, drawing the ire of both the civil sector and the state which often regard street children as unsocialized or asocial threats to established order. Commonly identified as the primary causes of escalation in social ills and inner-city decay, street children are represented as supernumerary nuisances and criminals, permitting civil sanction of their targeting for state reproach.
This research presents evidence in support of the claim that children who live on the street develop their own social organizations, networks of protection, territorial domains, and reticulations of support designed to ensure a common welfare. It examines the cultural conditions, political economy, and civil/political violence of the street in Port-au-Prince, and addresses the methodology of survival employed by the children for which it is home.]
KRETCHIK, Walter Edward. Peering Through The Mist: Doctrine As A Guide For United States Army Operations, 1775--2000. Pages: 00332. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: University of Kansas 0099. Year: 2001. SUBJECT(S): History, United States. SOURCE: DAI, 62, no. 06A (2001): p. 2219. ACCESSION #: AAI3018507. [ABSTRACT: This dissertation extends previous work concerning doctrine and the U.S. Army by asking: How appropriate was doctrine in guiding U.S. Army military operations between 1775 and 2000? Doctrine consists of published manuals that reconcile group interests, guide operational practice, and sanction the best available thought. Most large armies distribute a keystone or “warfighting” doctrine that seeks to “peer through the mist” of uncertainty—“the fog of war”—and guide future military operations. This work focuses on the keystone doctrine, the manuals that served as the intellectual foundation for an others.
The study first reconciles a discussion over what constitutes keystone doctrine by showing how 225 years of U.S. Army doctrine (drill manuals and more modern doctrine) share a common purpose—to guide army operations. By using 22 case studies from 1778 to 1995 and recent doctrinal drafts to illustrate current trends in U.S. Army thought to scrutinize doctrine, it was revealed that doctrine was appropriate about 50% of the time.
In six cases (the American Revolution, Mexico 1846–1848, World War II, Desert Storm 1991, Hurricane Andrew 1992, and Hurricane Iniki in 1992), doctrine adequately guided the army. In seven cases (War of 1812, Grenada 1982, Panama 1989, northern Iraq 1991, Rwanda 1994, Haiti 1994, and Bosnia 1995), doctrine was both useful and inadequate. In nine cases (the American Civil War, the 1898 Spanish-American War, Philippine Insurrection 1898–1902, World War I, Russia 1918, Korea 1950, the Vietnam War, Somalia 1993, and the 1990s Drug War), doctrine was deficient. Doctrine was adequate when the army had the resources to implement its principles because they remained valid when conditions had not changed radically since the manuals were published. The manuals both guided and misguided when a variety of conditions existed that had not been completely accounted for. Doctrine failed because the service lacked the resources to implement its beliefs or when technology, tactics, enemy warfighting styles, and U.S. national policy changed faster than the army reacted.
Doctrine has its own history. Doctrinal manuals caused the U.S. Army to behave in a certain way during military operations, and people's lives were dependent upon the precepts contained within them. This dissertation demonstrates that doctrine had a dramatic effect upon U.S. Army operations for over two centuries and warrants further scrutiny for understanding the service's performance when called upon to serve the nation's interests in peace and war.]
LAFALAISE, Marc Etienne. A Program Linking The Educational, Research, And Professional Communities With Psychological Services, Education, And Training At The Mental Health Hospitals In Haiti. Pages: 00108. Degree: Psy.D. Institution: Carlos Albizu University 1355. Year: 2002. SUBJECT(S): Psychology, clinical; Psychology, personality. SOURCE: DAI, 64, no. 05B (2002): p. 2392. ACCESSION #: AAI3082906. [ABSTRACT: This dissertation is a program design for the treatment of patients suffering from schizophrenia and/or major mood disorders in Haiti. The availability of mental health services to patients and families is lacking. Lack of community services and support, and inadequate monitoring have resulted in an increase in the rate of relapse, rehospitalization, and deterioration of skills and eventually to incapacitation.
The Day Treatment for Psychiatric and Psychological Services is unique in that part of the world because of its concept and practice. It adheres to the principles and practice guidelines published by the American Psychiatric Association for the treatment of schizophrenia, while remaining cognizant of the local milieu, the culture, and the belief system. It consists of a combination of drug therapy and psychosocial groups. Weekly treatment activities consist of individual and group psychotherapy involving patients and families.
The Day Treatment for Psychiatric and Psychological Services will fill the gap that exists in the availability and level of mental health services. It offers a training component in cooperation with the universities and training centers to increase the pool of available mental health counselors, and psychotherapists to provide the highest level of mental health treatment to patients and families.
It aims to prevent and treat mental illness in Haiti, to educate the community and encourage the government and its legislative body to list mental health as a priority in public health policies. The program affords patients psychiatric and psychological services at the community level leading to a decrease in homelessness, the number of mentally ill people in the streets, family dysfunction, and rate of relapse and rehospitalization. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)]
LAPIDUS, Benjamin Lindsay. An Examination Of The Changui Genre Of Guantanamo, Cuba. Pages: 00293. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: City University of New York 0046 Year: 2002. SUBJECT(S): Music Folklore; History, Latin American. SOURCE: DAI, 63, no. 03A (2002): p. 810. ACCESSION #: AAI3047237. [ABSTRACT: This dissertation is concerned with a regionally specific genre of Cuban music, changüí, and with how its practitioners transmit historical consciousness through song and dance. Changüí is a unique and dynamic music that thrives in Guantánamo, the easternmost province of Cuba. For approximately a century before the revolution of 1959, a changüí was a rural party with eating, drinking, dancing, and musical duels. Many changüíseros distinguished themselves as vocal improvisers and instrumentalists; songs by and about these musicians form a large part of the current changüí repertoire and include references to past musical gatherings, local history, instrumentation, and changüí itself. In this way, changüí is a continuously self-referencing genre.
Closer to Haiti than to Havana, Guantánamo has been the conduit and crucible for some of the most important and seminal aspects of Cuban musical culture. The Guantánamo province and the larger surrounding Oriente region (eastern Cuba ) have been the area of Cuba where white French creole and Afro-Haitian culture flourished since the time of the Haitian Revolution in 1791. For Cuba, the immediate musical effects of this Haitian presence begin with the contradanza craze of the nineteenth century and continue to be incorporated into the son, Cuba 's national genre. A number of distinctive and little-researched genres still flourish in the region; these include changüí, tumba francesa, montompolo, tajona and many others.
Changüí is important and interesting for a number of reasons. First, it has many unique musical features best described as a dense melodic and rhythmic complexity that emphasizes upbeats and syncopation; the beautiful accompanying dance embodies the music's sophistication. To date, both the music and the dance have been understudied or studied inadequately. Second, a close examination of changüí adds new perspectives to the study of mainstream Cuban music by focusing on how non-Cuban contributions have enhanced the development of Cuban music, particularly the Haitian role in the development of the son. Third, a study of changüí stresses the importance of regional variety, highlighting the larger, complex and problematic relationship of regional musical culture to national musical culture. Finally, an investigation of changüí reveals some of the weaknesses of the current Cuban genre classification, because it does not neatly fit into established categories thus questioning other genre relationships in Cuba.]
LAVEAUX, Cassandre Michelle. "Anacaona" De Jean Metellus. L'avenement Du Mythe (French text ). Pages: 00124. Degree: M.A. Institution: Carleton University ( Canada ) 0040. Year: 2003. SUBJECT(S): Cinema. SOURCE: MAI, 42, no. 02 (2003): p. 352. ACCESSION #: AAIMQ83447. [ABSTRACT: This study deals with the portrayal of Anacaona, a historical figure and the main protagonist in Jean Métellus' play Anacaona. She was the queen of the Taino people in Haiti during the pre-Columbian era. She fought against the Spanish until they eventually executed her and massacred her people. Located within the context of Haitian literature, this study also deals with the difficulty of reconstructing a historical figure on which very little has been written. However, the character has been transformed several times by other Haitian writers, including Métellus who portrays her as a strategic and analytical thinker, a poet and a politician. Métellus also portrays Anacaona as a classical and biblical figure, placing her in an anticolonial context, a metaphor for his critique of the Duvalier regime. All through the sum of these many different interpretations of the Anacaona figure, including those of Métellus, the Taino queen transcends our own reality and becomes a mythical figure.]
LEROY, Reine Carmel. School-based Management In Haiti: Committee Members' Perceptions Of Benefits, Disadvantages, Constraints And Facilitators. Pages: 00123. Degree: Ed.D. Institution: University of Miami 0125. Year: 2002. SUBJECT(S): Education, Administration. SOURCE: DAI, 63, no. 06A (2002): p. 2067. ACCESSION #: AAI3056619. [ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to describe the perceptions of various stakeholders (parents, teachers, school principals) of the Haitian School System with regard to school-based management (SBM) efforts in Haiti. Through focus group interviews, the study obtained the perceptions of different groups of stakeholders regarding the benefits, disadvantages, constraints, and facilitators associated with implementation of SBM in the public schools in Haiti.
Using purposive sampling, twenty schools that have implemented School-Based Management were chosen, ten in a rural district and ten in an urban district. Criteria for choosing schools included: rural and urban locations, three years of SBM experience and implementation of at least three SBM activities. 17 principals, 17 teachers and 14 parents took part in the study. Qualitative methods were used to summarize the data from the open-ended questions. Results indicated that: (1) School-Based Management is having a viable, but limited, impact on elementary public schools in Haiti. (2) There is a split along rural/urban lines regarding the implementation and effectiveness of School-based Management in the schools. (3) Parents appear to be more satisfied with the process than the other SBM participants, and they feel empowered to help make changes in the schools. (4) There is a big difference in teachers' perceptions of the process in the two areas. Teachers in rural areas are more involved and experienced greater satisfaction with the process.
This research is intended to be used to further discussion and development of SBM in the Haitian education system.]
LINDLEY, Keith William. Language Policies In The Transnational Haiti. Pages: 00193. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: University of Florida 0070. Year : 2002. SUBJECT(S): Language, Modern. SOURCE: DAI, 63, no. 06A (2002): p. 2226. ACCESSION #: AAI3056756. [ABSTRACT: Language policy can be either overt or covert. Expressed policies (overt) are easily identified and examined, while those that remain unarticulated (covert) represent a more serious challenge for the sociolinguist attempting to delineate and label them. Both types of language policy, however, reflect and affect language attitudes and usage in a given social environment. In the Haitian context, covert policies have predominated since colonial times. This study identifies and describes those policies and explores their relationship to language attitudes and practices which have characterized the Haitian experience since the nation's days as a colony of France.
This study centers on the following hypotheses: first, that the vast majority of language planning and policy both within Haiti and among Haitians abroad has always been covert, that is to say unstated; second, that whereas language policies have traditionally been determined by the mulatto elite of Haiti, an increasingly affluent diaspora comprised of both blacks and mulattoes now determines language policy within the ‘transnational' Haiti to a far greater degree than ever before; third, that although Creole often continues to function as the intimate language of Haitians living abroad, it is English which serves as their primary language of education, commerce, and social interaction with non-Haitians, while through the diaspora's influence, English continues to play an ever greater role in similar aspects of life within the traditional borders of Haiti; and fourth, that it is unspoken language policy originating in the private sector which will influence stated governmental language policy in the future. Archival research combined with ethnographic interviews and extensive surveys of websites and chat forums provides data.]
Martel, Lise D. Assessing And Predicting HIV/AIDS Teaching Behaviors Of Educators In Haiti (Immune Deficiency). Pages: 00071. Degree: M.A. Institution: University of Hawai'i 0085. Year: 2003. SUBJECT(S): Psychology, social; Education, health. SOURCE: MAI, 42, no. 03 (2003): p. 1076. ACCESSION #: AAI1417187. [ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was two-fold. First, it examined the predictive power of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes towards teaching about HIV/AIDS, support for AIDS education, AIDS teaching comfort, HIV/AIDS teaching behavioral control, religious and cultural beliefs about HIV/AIDS, subjective norms about teaching HIV/AIDS, and demographic factors on Haitian educators' reported HIV/AIDS teaching behavior. Second, it assessed the short-term effects of an HIV/AIDS teacher training offered to 214 teachers in Haiti.
Results showed that the odds of teaching about HIV/AIDS were greater for those participants with higher perceived subjective norms and behavioral control and lower cultural and religious beliefs about HIV. The odds of teaching about HIV/AIDS were also higher for males and secondary teachers. Also, there was a significant increase in teachers' knowledge, teaching comfort, and perceived behavioral control about teaching HIV/AIDS after the intervention. Implications for future prevention interventions and research are discussed.]
MCCORD, Deena Monique. Nation Building: A Case Study In Haiti. Pages: 00044. Degree: M.P.P. Institution: Regent University 1058. Year: 2003. SUBJECT(S): Political Science, International Law And Relations. SOURCE: MAI, 41, no. 05 (2003): p. 1321. ACCESSION #: AAI1413641. [ABSTRACT: The purpose of this work is to analyze the value of nation building as a contemporary foreign policy solution to the failed-state phenomenon ( Third World countries suffering from severely dysfunctional or non-existent governmental institutions and economic collapse). First, it identifies and defines the problem condition of “failed states.” Using Haiti as a case study, it outlines America 's foreign policy response in the policy of nation building as it relates to the development of democratic governance.
Goals and objectives, along with the outcomes and results of the nation building project in Haiti, are presented. Findings include the insufficiency of the nation-building policy to meet the ends desired by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and other parties responsible for the implementation of nation building in Haiti. Also discovered is the significance of religion and culture as determining factors in the success or failure of a nation-building project.]
MEADOWS, R. Darrell. The Planters Of Saint-Domingue, 1750--1804: Migration And Exile In The French Revolutionary Atlantic (Haiti, France). Pages: 00373.Institution: Carnegie Mellon University 0041. Year: 2004. SUBJECT(S): History, european; Sociology, public and social welfare; History, latin american. SOURCE: DAI, 65, no. 01A (2004): p. 261. ACCESSION #: AAI3120207. [ABSTRACT: This study makes innovative use of interdisciplinary research methodologies, including nominative record linkage, to understand key aspects of the French Atlantic world between 1750–804. Drawing principally on a systematic sample of records on government assistance to planters from Saint-Domingue exiled in France during the 1790s it asks. (1) What can an examination of Saint-Domingue's planter class tell us about the relative strength of metropole-colony ties, especially the role of migration in maintaining human ties across the Atlantic ? (2) What common assumptions about the “deserving poor” are revealed through analysis of assistance offered to exiled planters from Saint-Domingue in Jamaica, the U.S., and France ? (3) How did the dislocations and the experiences of loss and exile among planter families in the 1790s shape the interconnected French and Haitian revolutions?
First, this work shows that, in addition to economic and institutional ties, familial ties linked metropole and colony in significant ways. Born, married and buried on both sides of the Atlantic, and often bound together by the obligations of French property law, members of Saint-Domingue's planter class belonged to “transatlantic families.” For these individuals, voyages across the Atlantic were part of their expected lifecourse and were often required in order for individuals to meet changing family obligations.
Second, the study finds among the Atlantic world's cosmopolitan elites deeply shared understandings regarding the civic practice of extending charity and relief funds to the deserving poor. Elites in Jamaica and the U.S., for example, empathized deeply with the plight of formerly prosperous planters brought low by rebellious slaves and the misfortunes of war. And they expressed these shared values in the giving of private charity and state aid to displaced planters from Saint-Domingue.
Finally, this study demonstrates how the actions of more than 6,000 planters simultaneously shaped the histories of both the French and Haitian revolutions. Through thousands of individual petitions, exiles influenced both government assistance policy and the state's colonial policy, particularly its goal of repatriating Saint-Domingue's exiled planter class. Indeed, examining these petitions alongside pertinent legislative debates unravels the seeming paradox of the metropolitan government's consistently positive view of the Saint-Domingue planters, especially during the understudied periods of the Directory and early Consulate.]
MENARD, Nadeve. The Occupied Novel: The Representation Of Foreigners In Haitian Novels Written During The United States Occupation, 1915--1934. Pages: 00253. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: University of Pennsylvania 0175. Year: 2002. SUBJECT(S): Literature, Romance. SOURCE: DAI, 63, no. 05A (2002): p. 1853. ACCESSION #: AAI3054979. [ABSTRACT: The US Occupation of Haiti from 1915 to 1934 altered the way Haitians perceived and related to foreigners, Americans as well as others. The literature of the period reveals many of the issues Haitians struggled with as they adjusted to their new social and political environment. Some authors portray despair and helplessness. Others focus on resistance and hope. Six Haitian novelists explicitly chose the occupation as both subject and setting for their works. In order of publication, the texts that form the corpus of my thesis are Fernand Hibbert's Les Simulacres (1923), Léon Laleau's Le Choc (1932), Stéphen Alexis' Le Nègre Masqué (1933), Cléanthe Valcin's La Blanche Négresse (1934), Annie Desroy's Le Joug (1934), and Maurice Casséus' Viejo (1935). I define the occupied novel as one in which foreigners are not only major characters, but also control or influence the native characters. Examining the portrayal of foreigners in Haiti 's six occupied novels enables me to establish some of the ways in which the collective Haitian identity changed as a result of the occupation. I focus on certain key themes in this endeavor. Romantic and sexual relationships between Haitians and foreigners reveal the animosities and alliances occasioned by the occupation. Class dynamics are also crucial as they point to the tensions in Haitian society which were exacerbated by the political situation. I also explore the ways in which Haitians negotiated the various components of their collective identity, namely their French and African roots. Haitian occupied novels suggest that France becomes less dominant as a foreign reference in the Haitian imagination during the occupation period and tends to be replaced by the United States. In these narratives, Haitians continually assert themselves in opposition to the American invaders. The US occupation changed the Haitian identity from something automatically acquired at birth to something to be earned through patriotic acts of resistance.]
MICHEL, Jauffmick. Identity Development Of Young Women From Haitian Immigrant Families In The United States: A Qualitative Exploratory Study. Pages: 00189. Degree: Psy.D. Institution: Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, Graduate School of Applied and Professional Psychology 0542. Year : 2003. SUBJECT(S): Psychology, clinical sociology; Ethnic and racial studies; Women's studies; Psychology, developmental. SOURCE: DAI, 64, no. 09B (2003): p. 4626. ACCESSION #: AAI3106396. [ABSTRACT: A qualitative, exploratory study was conducted with fifteen young women, between the ages of 18 and 23, from Haitian immigrant families. The subjects were interviewed in depth on the topics of family information and connection to Haiti; identifications with Haitian culture, mainstream American culture, and African American culture; language influences; sense of community; educational experiences; dating, peer relationships and associated conflicts; and family relationships and associated conflicts. The researcher used grounded theory (Strauss & Corbin, 1998) to analyze the interview transcripts in order to develop hypotheses about the process of identity development in young women of Haitian descent. The subjects exhibited a high level of biculturalism. Although they expressed a strong sense of identification with Haitian values and worldviews, they were much more acculturated to American norms than their parents were. This disparity was associated with intense levels of parent-child conflict. Socializing with peers, dating, and education emerged as the areas of highest conflict in the family of origin. Additional areas of tension included their experience of unequal treatment of male and female children, excessive parental social restriction, and parental control over career choice, grooming, and style of dress. The findings are consistent with prior scholarly research and observation suggesting that the immigration process creates significant problems for families, particularly in parent-child relationships, and can make the process of identity development more complex for youth in such families. Implications for clinical work with Haitian youth and their families are discussed. Further research is needed to investigate whether young people in Haitian subcultures, which have been characterized by an unusually high degree of parental control, especially over female children, may find the legacy of family immigration particularly difficult, as these fifteen subjects tended to suggest. Other ideas for research are also discussed.]
MILLER, Helen Weber. "Macbeth" In Performance In The Twentieth Century. A Promptbook Examination Of stagings By Four Directors Over Half A Century: Orson Welles, Glen Byam Shaw, Trevor Nunn And Richard Jordan (William Shakespeare). Pages: 00194. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: New York University 0146. Year: 2002. SUBJECT(S): Theater. SOURCE: DAI, 63, no. 03A (2002): p. 818. ACCESSION #: AAI3045723. [ABSTRACT: This dissertation project, investigates the stagings of Macbeth by four directors whose productions have been mounted over a fifty-four year period (1936–1990)—(Orson Welles, Glen Byam Shaw, Trevor Nunn, and Richard Jordan). The entire productions are based on the directorial interpretations of three elements in Macbeth —the function of the witches and the relationship between Macbeth and Lady Macbeth, as revealed in the sleepwalking scene. The banquet, the third focus, was considered to be the strongest scene in all four productions with four diversified concepts of the ghost and Macbeth's relation to it, as well as the director's ideas of the banquet scene—and its ghosts.
The Welles production, produced at the Lafayette Theatre in New York in 1936, had the great depression for its social background. Welles hired one hundred and thirty-seven black cast and crew, including thirty-seven ‘main actors.' The production was placed in Haiti during the nineteenth century revolution, and the unit set was basically a stairway leading to a castle at one end of the stage and extending across most of the space, with wild jungle scenes on the sides. The witches added to the total mystery and superstition, and they were conceived by Welles as being supernatural forces, fitting into the background of ‘voodoo' chants and African drums used in this particular production.
In 1955, the Shaw production was produced at the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre at Stratford-Upon-Avon. Most important for the Royal Shakespeare Company in Stratford was to have the stellar cast of Laurence Olivier and Vivien Leigh in Macbeth. The stage was uncluttered, using medieval arches executed in an expressionistic style. With twenty years having passed since the Welles production, there was an evolution of directorial attitude toward character.
In 1976, the Nunn production was staged at the Other Place Theatre at Stratford-Upon-Avon. The promptbook diagrams show that Macbeth was staged in a sixteen foot circle with the audience seated on three sides. The actors carried wooden packing crates on stage to use for furniture. The concept of witches was that of homeless women with individual personalities. In England, in the seventies, McKellen and Densch were perfect for this style.
In most productions, the audience has empathy with Macbeth who, towards the end of the play, has remorse for his deeds, but such is not the case in the Jordan production. Richard Jordan mounted Macbeth at the Public Theatre in 1990 in New York. Macbeth, played by Raul Julia, distanced himself in such way that there was no emotional involvement of the audience with Macbeth. Macbeth, as conceived by Jordan, was a dictator who chosen his own paranoic path by exactly and carefully planning his own deeds, rather than being led by some outside force. The production relied on naturalism to remind the audience of today's tyrants. The witches existed for the approbation of Macbeth's deeds, in his chosen path of despotism; they did not prophesize. After the murders, the husband spurned and mocked his wife. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)]
MONTES, Jean. An Annotated Translation Thesis Of Constantin Eugene Moise Dumerve's "Histoire De La Musique En Haiti " ["The History of Music in Haiti "] 1968 (From French to English). Pages: 00335. Degree: D.M.A. Institution: The University of Iowa 0096. Year: 2003. SUBJECT(S): Music; History, black. SOURCE: DAI, 64, no. 07A (2003): p. 2306. ACCESSION #: AAI3097601. [ABSTRACT: There is only one scholarly work chronicling the rich and nuanced history of music in Haiti. Titled Histoire de la Musique en Haiti, it was written in 1965 by Constantin Dumervé, a Haitian musicologist. Dumervé's book documents the history of music in Haiti from its indigenous roots to the late 1960's. At present, little to nothing is known among music historians and ethnomusicologists of this country's musical history. Dumervé's work exists in only a few home collections of Haitian musicians and is written in French and Haitian Creole, which makes it inaccessible to many scholars. This book describes many Haitian musicians, compositions and musical styles that are either unknown or forgotten.
This English translation will serve to teach the community of music scholars about the history of music in Haiti, opening possibilities for a vast field of study of the specific composers and musicians chronicled therein. In addition, this rejuvenation of Dumervé's work aims to inspire Haitian musicians to reflect upon their past to create new and original works, furthering the development of a Haitian school of composition.
In addition to the translation, the introduction and conclusion further discuss the relevance of the study and provide some insight pertaining to the current state of music in Haiti. Finally, I have included in an appendix an annotated bibliography of some of the most relevant books written about the many facets of Haitian music and a list of recent and current Haitian composers from the last thirty years.]
MORRISSETTE, Noelle Anne. Critical fictions: The Prose Writings Of James Weldon Johnson. Pages: 00265. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: Yale University 0265. Year: 2002. SUBJECT(S): Literature, American; Black Studies; Biography. SOURCE: DAI, 63, no. 03A (2002): p. 946. ACCESSION #: AAI3046199. [ABSTRACT: This dissertation focuses on the major prose works of James Weldon Johnson, placing them firmly in the historical and literary contexts of early twentieth-century American letters. There are four key literary contexts to this historically-focused criticism: the American literary tradition of autobiography; African American travel literature; African American literary criticism and canon formation; and theories of the archive in both forming and preserving cultural memory. The four chapters do not correspond structurally to these different contexts, which are all imbricated in this chronological study of Johnson's works.
Chapter One, “Truth Stranger Than Fiction,” historicizes the event of The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man 's anonymous publication in 1912. The chapter addresses the relationship between race and ethnicity by placing Johnson's anonymous work in the American literary context of 1912, with first-person works by Mary Antin and W. E. B. Du Bois, and with its precedents in slave narratives and Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin.
Chapter Two, “Harlem Romances,” locates Johnson's 1927 reissue of The Autobiography of an Ex-Coloured Man as a novel alongside Carl Van Vechten's 1926 novel, Nigger Heaven, in the context of the Harlem Renaissance to discuss the aesthetic and theoretical importance of “passing” novels in debates about art and propaganda and to show the complex negotiations of black cultural representation in art.
Chapter Three, “‘Past Performances,'” discusses Johnson's 1930 history of a black New York, Black Manhattan, as an outgrowth both of his anti-imperial NAACP writings on Haiti and his literary writings on Harlem and explores the broadening and limiting models of national culture in the “New Negro” era anthologies. It establishes Johnson's history as one of the first to make use of archival sources of African American cultural and historical memory.
Chapter Four, “Not the Story of My Life,” examines the process by which Johnson separated Black Manhattan and Along This Way in his manuscript notes. Its discussion of authorial subjectivity departs from previous scholarship that contrasts Along This Way as the “real” autobiography with The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man as the “fictional” one by pairing these later works of personal memory and national history as Johnson's two approaches to the writing of his life.
The Afterword, “Remembering James Weldon Johnson,” considers the importance of archival memory in African American letters by discussing disputes as to what tributes were appropriate to Johnson after his accidental death. It points to Carl Van Vechten's influential decision to establish the James Weldon Johnson Memorial Collection, and reflects on how these initial disputes are echoed by generations of twentieth-century scholars of Johnson.]
NORTON, Richard James. Post-Cold War United States National Security Decision-Making: The Cases Of Somalia, Haiti And Rwanda. Pages: 00336. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy ( Tufts University ) 0930. Year: 2003. SUBJECT(S): Political Science, International Law And Relations;
Political Science, General. SOURCE: DAI, 64, no. 04A (2003): p. 1398. ACCESSION #: AAI3087687. [ABSTRACT: This study explores U.S. National Security decisions involving the use of military force that were made during the post-Cold War era in cases where there was general agreement among the decision makers that traditional U.S. security interests were not involved. Eight separate decisions in three distinct cases ( Somalia, Haiti and Rwanda ) are analyzed using four recognized models of decision-making in an effort to explain the decision-making process. These models are the Rational Actor Model, the Organizational Model, the Government-Politics Model, and the Human Factors Model.
The central hypothesis of this study is that applying any single model, which can provide some degree of explanatory power, will result in an incomplete understanding of the decision-making process. This result is due to the fact that each model examines only a small sample of the various forces acting on the decision-maker. Since all the forces usually operate simultaneously, the application of a single model will usually result in an incomplete understanding of the decision. Accordingly, a new integrated model of decision-making is proposed.
After each decision and case is analyzed, each individual model is applied, the model which provides the majority of explanatory power for the decision is identified and the decision is than analyzed using the integrated model. In every case the integrated provided significantly greater explanatory power than did any single model alone.
A conclusion of this study confirms what practitioners have long felt naturally, that the process by which national security decisions are reached is complex one and multiple forces impact the decision-making process simultaneously. Sometimes these forces propel the process to a single alternative, while at other times these forces act in opposition to each other. Using the integrated model of decision-making gives both scholars and practitioners an improved ability to recognize and explain the singular and synergistic impact of these forces.]
OGLE, Gene Edwin. Policing Saint Domingue: Race, Violence, And honor In An Old Regime Colony (Haiti). Pages: 00446. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: University of Pennsylvania 0175. Year: 2003. SUBJECT(S): History, modern; History, latin american; History, european. SOURCE: DAI, 64, no. 10A (2003): p. 3797. ACCESSION #: AAI3109205. [ABSTRACT: This dissertation explores the links between violence, race, and honor in French Saint Domingue ( Haiti ) from its seventeenth-century foundation to 1789. Using judicial sources, government correspondence, and contemporary descriptions, it argues that early modern French honor played a major role in structuring colonial social and political relationships. Honor-bound practices and ideas influenced the operation of the colony's penal apparatus and contributed significantly to the development of its racialized social hierarchy. As French honor gave cultural meaning to slavery and race, it was transformed by the colony's radically different social environment, dominated as it was by the Americas ' most productive slave-based plantation complex. Part One investigates race, honor, and violence in the criminal justice system. It explores how it came to be that system's hierarchy replicated the colony's racialized social hierarchy. Focusing on the system's personnel, it highlights the extent to which the colony's condemned slave executioners and “colored” policemen did what they could to better their own conditions at the expense of the projects of Saint Domingue's rulers. Part Two examines how honor shaped colonial political interactions. It concentrates on magistrates' attempts to gain authority by living up to honor-bound metropolitan models of what men of law were supposed to be. It also explores their struggles with the colony's other royal officers, chronicling a major shift in imperial political culture from one based solely on representing the King to one in which authority was also based on the cultivation of “Enlightened” knowledge. Part Three investigates how French practices and ideas regarding honor shaped social relations in Saint Domingue. Honor-bound violence, marriage strategies, and gossip gave everyday meaning to race and slavery, even as these practices became racialized in the colonial context. This Caribbean transformation of French honor made possible new visions of Saint Domingue's social and political order. In doing that, the racialization of honor paved the way for the revolutionary struggles that began in 1789 and resulted in Haitian independence in 1804.]
OJO, Adegboye Philip. Mortuary Tropes And Identity Articulation In Francophone Caribbean And Sub-Saharan African Narratives (Haiti, Senegal, Cote d'Ivoire, Guadeloupe). Pages: 00215. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: University of Oregon 0171. Year: 2003. SUBJECT(S): Literature, Modern; Literature, African; Black Studies. SOURCE: Literature, modern; Black studies. ACCESSION #: AAI3095268. [ABSTRACT: This dissertation examines the use of mortuary tropes for thLiterature, african;e articulation of identities in seven Francophone Black narratives: Jacques Roumain's Gouverneurs de la rosée, Jean-Claude Fignolé's Les possédés de la pleine lune and Maryse Condé's Traversée de la mangrove —for the Caribbean, and Sembène Ousmane's Niiwam and Guelwaar, Mariama Bâ's Une si longue lettre and Ahmadou Kourouma's Soleils des indépendances —for Sub-Saharan Africa. The study is based on the main premise that death and funeral practices provide a rich context for the articulation of identities.
Chapter I examines the origins of Francophone Black literature and the centrality of the quest for freedom and identity in African and Caribbean postcolonial narration. Chapter II is a socio-ethnological analysis of death practices in Sub-Saharan Africa and in the Caribbean and an enunciation of the research methodology. Chapter III focuses on the transformative potential of death in Caribbean literary texts in which the encounter with death proves to be closely related to the transformation of individuals and communities. Chapter IV explores literary depictions of Sub-Saharan African funerals as a context for a critique that offers unique articulations of socio-economic, cultural, and political realities in Africa. Chapter V considers death and funerals as narrative strategies in Francophone Black literature, a literature that is characterized by a deconstruction of conventional discourse that enables characters to speak their own language and tell their own stories.
I contend that death and funerals transform individuals and communities, and that mortuary tropes are powerful images of African and Caribbean identities. I further suggest that, as a result of their thematic and aesthetic similarities, we can productively read the literatures of the Caribbean and Sub-Saharan Africa together. While the mortuary context provides the substance for the narratives, the narration becomes the key to understanding the identities and realities of Francophone Black people. These works demonstrate some of the ways in which culture and literature create and read each other. Indeed, these literary works may prove to have lasting influence on their cultures, bringing about progress and beneficial transformations in these societies.]
ORCHARD, Philip Charles. Once More Unto The Breach: Humanitarian Interventions In Failed States (Somalia, Haiti). Pages: 00140. Degree: M.A. Institution: Memorial University of Newfoundland ( Canada ) 0306. Year: 2001. SUBJECT(S): Political Science, International Law And Relations. SOURCE: MAI, 40, no. 06 (2001): p. 1417. ACCESSION #: AAIMQ66785. [ABSTRACT: Failed and failing states are a growing concern throughout the world. These states leave the United Nations and the international community in the position of either helping or ignoring them. Unfortunately, when the UN has chosen to intervene, it has been unsuccessful in solving the state's long term problems. This thesis will examine two case studies of failed interventions, Somalia and Haiti, and existing theoretical models in order to (1) explore the strategies available to the UN to stop complex emergencies in failed states and then to reconstruct them, and (2) propose a new humanitarian intervention framework embodying these lessons.]
OSCAR, Josiane. Les Immigrant(e)s Haitien(ne)s A Montréal Et La Perception De Leur Role Dans Le Developpement D'Haiti (French text, Quebec ). Pages: 00141. Degree: M.A. Institution: University of Ottawa ( Canada ) 0918. Year: 2003. SUBJECT(S): Sociology, Social Structure And Development; Sociology, Ethnic And Racial Studies. SOURCE: MAI, 41, no. 05 (2003): p. 1336. ACCESSION #: AAIMQ76538. [ABSTRACT: Cette recherche est le fruit de deux observations: la première est liée au fait qu'un bon nombre d'ouvrages portent sur les immigrants et leurs transferts de fonds. Il n'existe aucune étude sur les transferts de revenus des immigrants haïtiens, qui pourtant constituent l'un des plus importants groupes ethniques dans certaines grandes villes nord-américaines.
La deuxième constatation relève du fait que la plupart des études qui portent sur la migration et le développement parviennent à la conclusion que les transferts de fonds des émigrés peuvent contribuer au développement de leur pays d'origine. C'est ce qui nous a poussé à aller interroger les Haïtiens à Montréal pour voir s'ils croient que leurs transferts de fonds vers Haïti peuvent être une aide importante pouvant déclencher le processus de développement en Haïti.
Nous avons obtenu des réponses plutôt mitigées à cette question. En effet, 15 répondants sur 35 estiment que leurs transferts peuvent aider au développement d'Haïti. Par contre, 20 participants sur 35 déclarent formellement que leurs transferts ne peuvent pas contribuer au développement de leur pays d'origine puisque ces envois de fonds ne sont pas effectués dans un tel but, ils ne sont pas investis dans des activités rentables. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)]
PARHAM, Angel Adams. The Diasporic Public Sphere: Internet-mediated Community And Civic Life In Transnational Haiti. Pages: 00168. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: The University of Wisconsin - Madison 0262. Year: 2003. SUBJECT(S): Sociology, Ethnic And Racial Studies. SOURCE: DAI, 64, no. 05A (2003): p. 1859. ACCESSION #: AAI3089560. [ABSTRACT: The discussion lists and websites frequented by diasporic communities provide a social and communicative infrastructure that is used for everything from discussion of community issues to networking and advocacy. By using online forums in these ways, diasporic groups are creating an Internet-mediated public sphere that is opening up new possibilities for organizing community life in diaspora. While public sphere theory has been used to consider how inclusive dialogue and civic-minded networking can be used to encourage a more participatory democracy at the national level, the idea of the “public sphere” is often mentioned but little analyzed at the transnational level. This is a significant omission in a world where members of diasporic communities play important social, economic, and political roles in their countries of origin while attempting to negotiate differences in time and space. The use of Internet-mediated forums that facilitate deliberation and networking may prove to be an invaluable tool for overcoming these difficulties.
This study offers an investigation of the Haitian diaspora's use of three online forums and addresses two main questions: (1) In what ways and under what conditions do these forums cultivate civic discussion; (2) In what ways—if at all—do such forums strengthen or facilitate the creation of new social networks for transnational cooperation? On the first question, the study finds some limited support for civic discussion in the forums where members are able to discuss their differences, work toward consensus, and establish an alternative public of shared language and culture. More often, however, undemocratic forms of moderating and fears of unfriendly lurkers are threats to open discussion. On the second question, the social origins and organizational structure of the forum influence participants' ability to establish collaborative networks. The forums which started with pre-existing social ties were more stable than the one that did not, while the forums attempting to undertake projects on a corporate basis were less successful than the forum with decentralized organization.]
PAUL, Christopher Edward. Marines On The Beach: How The United States Arrives At Armed Intervention. Pages: 00350. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: University of California, Los Angeles 0031. Year: 2001. SUBJECT(S): Sociology, General; Political Science, General. SOURCE: DAI, 62, no. 08A (2001): p. 2887. ACCESSION #: AAI3024082. [ABSTRACT: This dissertation asks how decisions to launch U.S. military interventions are made and why they are made in that way. These questions are a subset of a larger question which lies at the core of political sociology: Why do states do what they do? While focused on the military intervention decision making process, this dissertation is framed by, and seeks to contribute to, that more general question of governance. This multiple case study increases our understanding of how and why U.S. military intervention decisions are made by examining the four U.S. military interventions in the Caribbean and Central America since World War II: The Dominican Republic (1965), Grenada (1983), Panama (1989), and Haiti (1994).
Findings show that existing theories of decision making and of state behavior fail to provide an adequate explanation of how the decisions that constitute these cases were made. While many existing theories contribute to understanding these cases, the author concludes that a model that considers the impact of several aspects of the institutional context and how it changes, along with the acknowledgment of factors that are genuinely contingent results in an improved understanding of U.S. military intervention decision making.]
PAULINO, Edward Ramon. Birth Of A Boundary: Blood, Cement, And Prejudice And The Making Of The Dominican-Haitian Border, 1937--1961 (Rafael Trujillo). Pages: 00279. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: Michigan State University 0128. Year: 2001. SUBJECT(S): History, Latin American. SOURCE: DAI, 62, no. 07A (2001): p. 2534. ACCESSION #: AAI3021826. [ABSTRACT: My dissertation examines the effects 1937 Haitian Massacre in the Dominican Republic and the subsequent nationalization of the Dominican borderlands. More than 20,000 Haitian men, women, and children were murdered by Dominican soldiers following orders of the dictator Rafael Trujillo. This genocidal and unprecedented policy eliminated most of the Haitian presence along the border and led the way for a state-building project to Dominicanize semi-autonernous this region. Following the massacre the Dominican government incorporated this region into its sphere of influence by establishing institutions such as the church and military to physically and officially demarcate its territory with Haiti. My dissertation utilizes various methodological approaches from border history, genocide, and nationalism to better understand the violent implications of state projects that attempt to eradicate a semi-autonomous and interdependent community such as the Dominican border with Haiti. Moreover, by placing this event as part of a larger historical continuum of Dominican-Haitian border relations, I show how the Dominican frontier rather than the capital of Santo Domingo shaped the existence of the nation.]
PASTORE, Chaela Marie. Merchant Voyages: Michel Marsaudon And The Exchange Of Colonialism In Saint Domingue, 1788--1794 (Haiti, France). Pages: 00248. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: University of California, Berkeley 0028. Year: 2001. SUBJECT(S): History, European; History, Latin American; Biography. SOURCE: DAI, 62, no. 07A (2001): p. 2530. ACCESSION #: AAI3019765. [ABSTRACT: This dissertation considers French colonialism in Saint Domingue through the lens of an occupational group: merchants. In the last third of the eighteenth century especially, a number of French journeyed to Saint Domingue to pursue the upward mobility that eluded them in France. Merchants were prominent among these sojourners, who planned to make their fortune and return home. Some merchants achieved this goal, but those who worked in small-scale commerce tended to stay in the colony or to travel back and forth between Saint Domingue and France. They thus became mediators between producers and consumers both within the colony and between the colony and the metropole. Merchants created a link between France and Saint Domingue that spanned the commercial and the cultural, and their study helps make Haiti integral to French history.
The merchants studied here engaged in a wide range of activities. Some depended on petty retail trade just to survive, while others handled transactions worth tens of thousands of francs. Their experience uncovers the colonial world of Saint Domingue in a number of ways. By tracing a period (1788–1794) in the professional and personal life of one merchant, Michel Marsaudon, and examining a broader sample of merchant letters from 1792–1793, this dissertation reveals the goals, maneuvers, and strategies of merchants, the goods they circulated, the meanings attached to those goods, and the social and cultural repercussions of their trade in the colony.
Merchants, who maintained the colony's infrastructure, had little stake in its political system. When word of the French Revolution arrived in Saint Domingue, they announced their Republicanism, mainly in the interest of continuing trade, or avoided showing any political stripes at all. When the Haitian Revolution erupted, they saw the possibility for profit. Civil strife in the colony and France 's war with Britain made consumer goods scarce, and merchants with access to them stood to gain from the upheaval. In the end, however, merchants found that the French state, attenuated as it was in the colony, held the key to their success there. When its hold on the colony crumbled, so did their chances for profit.]
PEGRAM, Earl Floyd Scooter. Caught In The Middle: The Construction, Expression, And Transformation Of Identity Among Haitian Youth In Montreal (Quebec). Pages: 00304. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: Louisiana State University and Agricultural & Mechanical College 0107. Year: 2001. SUBJECT(S): Language, Linguistics. SOURCE: DAI, 63, no. 02A (2001): p. 580. ACCESSION #: AAI3042645. [ABSTRACT: This dissertation examines identity issues among Haitian youth in Montréal, Québec ( Canada ). Because Haitians are the largest group of “visible minorities” in the province and are an integral part of the Québec mosaic, the distinctive “sense of belonging” felt by youth in the Haitian community necessitates further inquiry into what connections they (Haitian youth) have with both the majority Québécois culture and the minority Haitian immigrant culture of Montréal. Since Québec is a Francophone society in a North America that is majority Anglophone, this linguistic and cultural confusion sometimes results in immigrant youth assuming multiple identities in order to “fit in,” and survive.
The present study examines two groups of Haitian youth: Young Haitians born in Haiti, and those born in Québec. In this dissertation, I research how these two groups construct, express, and transform their identity as a result of the surrounding environment. To do this, this dissertation presents data from a cultural, sociological, and sociolinguistic intervention undertaken with 108 young Haitians from Montréal, aged 17 to 25, who were interviewed during the Summer of 2000.
Two sets of interviews were prepared: A short questionnaire, and a long personal interview. The schema of these two interviews researched various pre selected issues relating to identity, with the premise of delineating how Haitian youth felt concerning these issues. These interviews took place throughout the Island of Montréal in various locales (on public transportation, in parks, at festivals, etc.). The results of these inquiries were tabulated, categorized, and arranged into numerical tables and graphs, which can be found in the sixth, seventh and eighth chapters of the present dissertation, with a subsequent chapter analyzing these findings.
It was discovered that Haitian youth in Montréal, (as is the case with other immigrant youth), possess multiple identities, and are not deconstructed and reconfigured into a single set category, as they borrow from the two cultures that surround them (the majority Québécois culture, and the heritage Haitian culture), forming their own distinct category.
This dissertation concludes with a discussion of the implication of the findings for future study on the Québec Allophone community.]
PEREZ, Martha Patricia. Reciprocity And A Sense Of Place: A Phenomenological Map Of Haitian Space. Pages: 00321. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: The University of Texas at Austin 0227. Year: 2001. SUBJECT(S): Geography; Sociology, Ethnic And Racial Studies; Anthropology, Cultural. SOURCE: DAI, 62, no. 03A (2001): p. 1157. ACCESSION #: AAI3008418. [ABSTRACT: This is a humanistic study of place. It explores how local knowledge shapes production of space. It propounds that culture is embodied in spatial practice, and interprets Haitian space via a phenomenological approach and embraces an ontological perspective.
Multiple disciplinary layers support this approach. First, it is based on a philosophical theoretical framework which engages the literature on production of space, namely, Lefebvre, Heidegger, Gadamer, and Walter. Second, this study accordingly develops an appropriate investigative method based on a sense of place utilizing current post-structural, experiential, and ethnographic literature, namely James, Stoller, Stewart, Friedson, Desjarlais, Feld, and Jackson. Third, it explores the literature on Haitian Vodoun and studies of spatial and socio-economic organizing principles of their lifeworld (reciprocity-based exchange, earth-based systems of knowledge), namely, Brown, Anglade, Wolf, Schaedel, Deren, and Desmangles. Fourth, this work links the organizing principles of pre-capitalist lifeways to current literature on sustainability, and argues how development processes could integrate other ways of knowledge—reciprocity-based ones. It explores the literature on the cultural assumptions in development initiatives and ideas of our own ecological crisis vis-à-vis the wisdom in kin-oriented systems, namely Denevan, Marsh, Leopold, White, Berry, Abrams, Broomfield, Doughty, Mugerauer, Marx, and Redclift. The dissertation links sustainability and reciprocity-based socio-economic systems and more importantly, it advances that Vodoun is integral in an empowering approach to sustainable development in Haiti.
This study incorporates field work (3 site-visits—1996, 1998, and 1999) with a narrative of Haitian space. This narrative follows James' phenomenological approach to religion and integrates: (1) participant observation of Vodoun ceremonies (US and Haiti ), (2) journal records and interpretation of experiences, and (3) interviews and personal communications.]
PIERRE-CANEL, Fred. Structure D'un Système De Gestion De Routes Pour Haiti (French text). Pages: 00158. Degree: M.Ing. Institution: Ecole de Technologie Supérieure ( Canada ) 1246. Year: 2001. SUBJECT(S): Engineering, Civil; Urban And Regional Planning. SOURCE: MAI, 39, no. 04 (2001): p. 1207. ACCESSION #: AAIMQ56063. [ABSTRACT: Cette étude dresse brièvement l'état de la situation en matière de gestion de routes en Haïti. Elle résume les concepts clefs de la gestion des routes pour les pays en développement. Elle fait ressortir les moyens pour implanter un système simple de gestion de routes qui soit peu coûteux pour l'administration haïtienne. Enfin, elle élargit le cadre quant à la mise en place d'une structure de gestion routière moderne.
L'approche de gestion proposée s'appuie sur deux critères spécifiques, l'état actuel de l'ensemble des routes haïtiennes et le niveau du trafic. Ces deux entités permettront à l'administration d'établir les priorités en entretien et en réhabilitation pour tout le réseau et suivant le budget disponible. En ce sens, plusieurs techniques de réhabilitation et d'entretien ont été identifiées dans le but spécifique de permettre aux responsables routiers de faire le choix du traitement le plus économique pour un tronçon donné. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)]
PIERRE, Delima. L'apport De L'enseignement De L'histoire En Haiti A La Socialisation Politique Et A L'éducation A La Citoyenneté En 7ème et 8ème Années (French text). Pages: 00124. Degree: M.A. Institution: Universite Laval ( Canada ) 0726. Year: 2002. SUBJECT(S): Education, sociology of; Education, social sciences. SOURCE: MAI, 41, no. 05 (2002): p. 1261. ACCESSION #: AAIMQ77345. [ABSTRACT: Le fil d'Ariane de ce mémoire est l'étude des programmes d'histoire en 7 ème et 8 ème années de l'École fondamentale en Haïti. L'auteur cherche à déceler les dimensions de socialisation politique et d'éducation à la citoyenneté dont les programmes seraient porteurs. L'étude est menée selon une grille d'analyse élaborée à partir de la revue des écrits et des données tirées des programmes. Les résultats de l'analyse de contenu des programmes d'histoire des deux classes, de leurs objectifs, de leurs buts, de leurs finalités et des guides pédagogiques qui les accompagnent lui permettent d'en dégager les dimensions et les indicateurs qui en font des vecteurs de socialisation politique et d'éducation à la citoyenneté. Les résultats de la recherche pourraient avoir une signification du point de vue de l'institutionnalisation d'une culture politique en Haïti.]
PIERRE-LOUIS, Francois, Jr. Transnational Organizations And Citizen Participation: A Study Of Haitian Immigrants In New York City. Pages: 00207.
Degree: Ph.D. Institution: City University of New York 0046. Year: 2001. SUBJECT(S): Political Science, General; Anthropology, Cultural; Sociology, Ethnic And Racial Studies. SOURCE: DAI, 62, no. 03A (2001): p. 1197. ACCESSION #: AAI3008861. [ABSTRACT: This is a study about Haitian immigrants in New York City and the hometown associations that they have created to facilitate their assimilation into the United States. A major finding of the study is that the assimilation pattern of Haitians in New York City is different from other Caribbean immigrants. This is due to the conditions that contributed to their migration to the United States and the role that activist and community organizations played in helping first-generation middle-class Haitians maintain a separate identity from African-Americans.
Over the past two decades, members of these organizations have demonstrated their desire to maintain ties with Haiti by sending goods and materials to their hometowns, raising money for projects, and helping hometown officials create voluntary organizations to increase local capacity and to act at the local level. While actively pursuing these goals, they have also engaged in actions in New York City that have contributed to an increase in the number of immigrants who are motivated to participate in civic activities. Although scholars have addressed the role that transnational organizations play in creating the conditions that facilitate immigrants to conduct a transnational life, they have not studied these organizations in detail to determine the processes they engage in to help their members maintain a transnational life, their impact on immigrants in the United States, and their limitations as assimilating institutions.
In this study, I examine the Haitian transnational organizations, also known as hometown associations, their impact on Haitians in New York City, and the processes that their members use to resist a downward assimilation into mainstream US society. I argue that these organizations have a direct influence on the growth and development of the immigrant community in New York City by helping Haitians resist assimilation into the African-American community, encouraging them to reinforce their self-identity, and promoting greater citizen participation in the community.]
PINDER, Philip Wallace. Distance Education In Small, Developing Island States: An Investigation And Proposal Of A Post-Secondary Distance Education System For The Bahamas. Degree: D.Ed. Institution: The Pennsylvania State University 0176. Year: 2003. SUBJECT(S): Education, Adult And Continuing; Education, Technology. SOURCE: DAI, 64, no. 09A (2003): p. 3162. ACCESSION #: AAI3106306. [ABSTRACT: The Bahamas is a small developing island nation on the periphery of the West Indies. It comprises some 700 islands with substantive populations on 22 of them. The established post-secondary education centers are located in Nassau, the capital. About one-third of the 305,000 inhabitants of the country live on islands scattered between Florida, Cuba, and Haiti. The possibility of developing distance education as a means of meeting the post-secondary education needs of Bahamians on Family Islands and others has been under discussion for some two decades. This issue of the non-development of distance education for The Bahamas was the focus of the present study.
The purpose of the study was to assess the possible effectiveness of using Meacham and Zubair's (1992) five-factor model as a planning tool for developing a framework for a distance education system in The Bahamas. The assessment involved taking cognizance of relevant contexts of The Bahamas, identifying elements of those contexts that operate as either enhancers or barriers to the development of a distance education system, and developing the framework for a plan for the introduction of a post-secondary distance education system in The Bahamas.
The research for the study was undertaken using a mixed methodology approach. A qualitative component undertook the reviewing of documents that had addressed the issue of distance education for The Bahamas. A quantitative segment gathered data from members of the faculties of two colleges: The College of The Bahamas and the Bahamas Baptist Community College. These data show the lecturers' perceptions of the educational technologies—their experience with the use of technologies, how the technologies may help meet the country's educational needs, and the faculty member's willingness, or lack thereof, to adopt a distance education system. A second qualitative component carried out a number of formal and informal interviews. Current and former administrators of colleges, educational officers, the consultant and school principals of the Ministry of Education, and middle management college administrators gave their opinions through interviews.
Organization of the data was done to obtain answers to six initial research questions posed in the first chapter of the study. These data were presented under the categories of documentary, survey, interview, and literature date pertinent to each question. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)]
PLASTAS, Melinda Ann. 'A Band Of Noble Women': The WILPF And The Politics And Consciousness Of Race In The Women's Peace Movement, 1915--1945. Pages: 00334. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: State University of New York at Buffalo 0656. Year: 2001. SUBJECT(S): Women's Studies; History, Black; American Studies; Political Science, General. SOURCE: DAI, 61, no. 12A (2001): p. 4977. ACCESSION #: AAI9997985. [ABSTRACT: Race played a central role in the development of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF), the leading women's peace organization. This dissertation explores the ways in which discourses of race, gender, and nation generated during World War I influenced the intellectual and pragmatic developments of the organization. Further, it examines how the desire to end war encouraged the WILPF to make alliances with prominent black clubwomen and liberal black leaders in the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). It also examines the formative participation of black clubwomen in the WILPF. A comparative study of the cultural and political texts (pageants, novels, poetry, syndicated newspaper columns, speeches, and travel writings) produced by leading African American (Jessie Fauset, Alice Dunbar-Nelson, and Addie Hunton) and white (Emily Greene Balch, Rachel Dubois, and Anna Melissa Graves) women internationalists, reveals their pivotal role in challenging ideologies of scientific racism and in promoting transnationalism. In particular it examines African American and white women's efforts to contest the racism of U.S. economic imperialism in places like Haiti and Liberia and in U.S. domestic policy and society. From sponsoring international investigative missions to high society teas, the WILPF highlighted the centrality of race to the shape of global, national, and local conflicts.
It also explores women's local and national efforts to create and promote interracial women's peace communities. Of particular importance is the way in which WILPF Interracial Extension Committees utilized the classed discourse of noble womanhood as a bridge discourse between African American and white women. Through nationwide Interracial Extension Committees which brought people together to listen to leading New Negro artists and intellectuals, black clubwomen, and peace activists, the WILPF sought to make the women's peace movement a model for new and improved race relations. This dissertation explores both the accomplishments of the committees and the ultimate failure of the WILPF to fully integrate the participation of African American women in all aspects of the organization.
Through a comparative study of the postwar beliefs and actions of African American and white women, we see how the postwar racial climate exacted similar yet different meanings upon women's lives. Compelled by the rise in domestic racism unleashed by the war and the dangers of nationalism, African American and white women forged new commitments to securing racial justice and world peace. While sharing a dedication to peace and freedom, the influence of postwar racial politics produced significant differences in the day-to-day lives and political consciousness of African American and white women. For African American women the postwar years meant fighting for basic human rights and exploring the place of Pan-African consciousness in the securement of world peace and black freedom. White women, seeing connections between the mentalities of war and the popular philosophies of scientific racism and Anglo-Saxon superiority, dedicated themselves to challenging the social hierarchies of race. Ironically, at the same time their actions and beliefs reified the centrality of white womanhood to the securement of world peace, marginalizing black women's participation.]
PUSHKINA, Darya. United Nations Peacekeeping In Civil Wars: Conditions For Success. Pages: 00265. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: University of Maryland College Park 0117. Year: 2002. SUBJECT(S): Political Science, International Law Andrelations. SOURCE: DAI, 63, no. 11A (2002): p. 4083. ACCESSION #: AAI3070541. [ABSTRACT: This dissertation addresses the question: why has United Nations peacekeeping been more successful in management of some internal conflicts than others? Success is defined with regard to limiting violence, reducing human suffering, preventing conflict from spreading and fulfilling the mission's mandate. International relations and comparative politics approaches are combined to create a theoretical framework. External and domestic factors are analyzed in terms of their relative importance and interactive effects using quantitative comparative analysis and qualitative cases studies.
Quantitative study examines seventeen peacekeeping missions between 1945 and 1998: UNAVEM III (Angola), ONUMOZ (Mozambique), UNTAG (Namibia), UNAMIR (Rwanda), UNOSOM II (Somalia), ONUC (Congo), UNTAG (Cambodia), UNIFIL (Lebanon), UNFICYP (Cyprus), UNPROFOR (Bosnia-Herzegovina), UNPROFOR (Croatia), UNCRO (Croatia), UNTAES (Croatia), UNPROFOR (Macedonia), UNPREDER (Macedonia), UNMIH, and UNSMIH (Haiti). Qualitative case studies focus on failure in Angola (UNAVEM III), success in Mozambique (ONUMOZ) and the varying performance in Croatia (UNPROFOR, UNCRO, UNTAES).
The findings of this project highlight the importance of certain international and domestic factors for the varying effectiveness of UN peacekeeping missions. As predicted, the key determinants of UN peacekeeping success are consistent commitment on the part of the UN members to particular missions, absence of external support for the belligerents, and a low degree of mutual antagonism. Contrary to expectations, the involvement of the great powers, the activities of regional organizations, the level of diplomatic efforts, the presence of an objective military balance, absence of an ethnic component and the mission's characteristics are not necessary for peacekeeping success. The conclusion underlines implications of this project for international relations and comparative politics literature as well as the foreign policy community.]
QUINN, Joanna R. The Politics Of Acknowledgement: Truth Commissions In Uganda And Haiti. Pages: 00303. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: McMaster University ( Canada ) 0197 Year: 2003. SUBJECT(S): Political Science, International Law And Relations. SOURCE: DAI, 65, no. 01A (2003): p. 280. ACCESSION #: AAINQ86551. [ In the aftermath of a period of mass violations of human rights, societies are left with a weakened social infrastructure, on top of a similarly weakened physical infrastructure. The “Politics of Acknowledgement” posits that a society must pass through several stages in its quest to right the wrongs of the past, and remedy the social problems, and explores the role of acknowledgement in the process of societal recovery. I argue that the process of acknowledgement is of particular importance, forming a necessary but not sufficient condition in any successful process of societal recovery to allow the society to move forward. Acknowledgement can lead to forgiveness, which allows social trust and civic engagement to grow, all of which can lead to the development of civil society and, ultimately, democracy.
The thesis considers how the truth commissions of Uganda and Haiti were able to foster such acknowledgement. Both commissions were beset by a number constraints. Chief among these was a lack of political will to see the commission successfully through. This led directly to the failure of the commissions. The commissions failed in securing the social capital, security, and funding required to complete their work in a timely fashion. The evidence shows that neither commission was able to foster any significant levels of acknowledgement. As a result, social trust and civil society simply did not develop, which compromised the development of democracy in both Haiti and Uganda. ]
QUINTANA, Maria A. Los Textos Fundacionales Contemporaneos: "El Senor De Las Lluvias Y El Viento" De Rosa Maria Britton (Panama), "Tocaia Grande" De Jorge Amado (Brasil) y "El Reino De Este Mundo" De Alejo Carpentier (Cuba) (Spanish text). Pages: 00181. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: University of Houston 0087. Year: 2001. SUBJECT(S): History, Latin American; Literature, Latin American; Folklore. SOURCE: DAI, 62, no. 11A (2001): p. 3906. ACCESSION #: AAI3032355. [ABSTRACT: El objeto de estudio de mi tesis que lleva por título: Los textos fundacionales contemporáneos: El señor de las lluvias y el viento de Rosa María Britton (Panamá), Tocaia Grande (Brasil) y El reino de este mundo (Cuba) es el de analizar estas obras como textos fundacionales contemporáneos al tratar temas tan delicados para el progreso de un país como son el discurso del mestizaje y consecuentemente del racismo; el curanderismo como alternativa a la medicina tradicional y el curandero como principal aliviador de los males físicos y espirituales. El propósito de Rosa María Britton en El señor de las lluvias y el viento (1984) es el de presentar a una nueva sociedad panameña que contempla su Historia y se decide a dar el paso hacia el progreso en ese universo formado por la mezcla de negros, indios y blancos personalizado en el matrimonio simbólico de Andrés el curandero blanco-indio portavoz de las raíces panameñas y de la enfermera Alicia, negra, representante del país. En Tocaia Grande (1984), Jorge Amado nos habla de la fundación de la ciudad imaginaria de Irisópolis llamada Tocaia Grande en sus orígenes y señala abiertamente la situación del país actual y su sociedad, olvidada a propósito por los medios de comunicación y el gobierno en sí. Finalmente, en El reino de este mundo (1949), aparece reflejada la sociedad de la República Dominicana y Haití del siglo XX cuyo mensaje es la constitución de cualquiera nación latinoamericana libre. La tesis aparece dividida en varias partes, siguiendo los estudios de Doris Sommer y Homi K. Bhabha en su aproximación sobre los textos fundacionales. En el capítulo I, hago una introducción en la que presento mi método de trabajo, explico la razón por la cual me he regido para la división y el contenido de cada capítulo y cómo éstos están interrelacionados. En el capítulo II, entro en la dicotomía de qué es realidad y qué es ficción que hace dividir el género épico de la novela; y se describen los discursos sexuales y religiosos como elementos configurativos de una novela fundacional, puesto que delimitan el concepto de nación. La conclusión a la que se llega y que es común a las tres novelas es que la Iglesia es un elemento destructivo en estos tres países ya que ésta no entiende el espíritu del pueblo, y se niega a progresar. También, cómo el discurso sexual es necesario entre personas de diferentes razas: la blanca, la negra y la mestiza, para delimitar un nuevo e innegable concepto de nación: el mestizaje. Esta mezcla facilita el progreso del país y me sirve de introducción al capítulo III, en el que analizo este discurso del mestizaje y por añadidura: el del racismo como traba al progreso, siendo el primero, el elemento principal en la constitución de estas obras como textos fundacionales. El capítulo IV lo integra el discurso del curanderismo/brujería como elementos integrantes de la tradición cultural latinoamericana, puesto que la Historia no puede negar su pasado histórico-mítico.]
RACINE, Jean Marc. Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) In Haiti: Opportunities And Limitations. Pages: 00131. Degree: M.S. Institution: State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry 0213. Year: 2002. SUBJECT(S): Environmental Sciences; Urban And Regional Planning; Political Science, International Law And Relations. SOURCE: MAI, 40, no. 06 (2002): p. 1491. ACCESSION #: AAI1408737. [ABSTRACT: The management of coastal resources calls for interdependency, and requires international agreements among nations in order to achieve the sustainable development goals. As related to coastal nations, the sustainable development has been translated into the concept of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM). As a result, he implementation of ICZM has become a priority for many developing coastal nations and financial and aid institutions. This paper is an investigation of the difficulties associated with such implementation in the case of Haïti so that the opportunities and limitations of such initiative are identified. The state of the coastal zone management (CZM) in Haïti was portrayed using five dimensions identified in Sorenson and Brandani's approach (1987). Face-to-face and phone interviews with key informants from the different institutions involved in the process were conducted using a snowball technique, and documents review was also realized. The information gathered was analyzed at: (1) a micro level using the Integrated Management Approach (IMA) and (2) a macro level articulated through a Political Ecology Approach (PEA). The study revealed the existence of an inadequate management process and that the implementation of ICZM is limited by the macro-economic instability of the country.]
RADER, Pamela J. Syncretic Spirits Of (A) National Literatures By Women In The Americas. Pages: 00219. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: University of Colorado at Boulder 0051. Year: 2002. SUBJECT(S): Women's Studies; Literature, American; Literature, Comparative. SOURCE: DAI, 63, no. 02A (2002): p. 788. ACCESSION #: AAI3043556. [ABSTRACT: In my discussion of texts by women writers, who have diasporic heritages in common, I focus on culturally specific constructions of gender, spirituality, and nationality. An accomplishment of these women's writings is that in refuting the legacies of colonialism and nationalism, the authors offer literary alternatives and inaugurate syncretic traditions, which fuse conflicting cultural and religious beliefs. Through an analysis of these writers' works, I propose not to define the sacred, but I show the ways in which spirituality and its syncretic presences in contemporary women's literature offer opportunities for re-reading fiction. These writers create and install cultural citizenship, which proposes an alternative to postcolonial, postmodern, multicultural, and global feminist paradigms. I, therefore, highlight the ethnographic aspects of these novels, essays, and film, which transcend linear narratives, culturally specific gender expectations, and boundaries of genre.
The first chapter examines Paula Gunn Allen's The Woman Who Owned the Shadows and Leslie Marmon Silko's Almanac of the Dead and these authors' treatment of ethnographic misrepresentations of gender and two-spirit peoples by reinstating a syncretic tradition. Silko and Allen blend Native American and Euramerican traditions to create both new literature and ceremonial texts.
Similar in approach, Chapter 2 presents an interdisciplinary probe into fiction, poetry, and theory by Gloria Anzaldúa, Sandra Cisneros, Alicai Gaspar de Alba, and Carmen Tafolla who highlight the cultural and spiritual relationships of four Latina icons to their community. These Chicana writers, rereading the feminine Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, Guadalupe, La Malinche, and the santera (saint-maker), reinvent transcultural spiritualities in everyday life.
In Chapter 3, Toni Morrison's novel, Beloved, and Julie Dash's film, Daughters of the Dust, innovatively reinstate the abiku, or African spirit child, in the framing of their respective narratives. I argue that the protagonists successfully bridge cultural and historical gaps in the Diaspora.
In the final chapter, I examine the relationship between the United States and Haiti in the novels of Edwidge Danticat and the literary criticism of Myriam J. A. Chancy. Here, Creole and the marassas, or twins, become operative agents in the ever-changing voudou faith and in the literature representing it.]
RAMEAU, Pierre-Michel Pavlov. Plan For A Community College System In Haiti. Pages: 00220. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: University of Florida 0070. Year: 2001. SUBJECT(S): Education, Administration; Education, Bilingual And Multicultural; Education, Higher. SOURCE: DAI, 62, no. 04A (2001): p. 1290. ACCESSION #: AAI3009956. [ABSTRACT: The system of higher education in Haiti closes the doors on the majority of its youth upon their graduation from high school. Most institutions admit a fixed number of students each year, usually 100, and the unfortunate students who are not admitted must wait a year before being allowed to reapply to the institution. Because of this selective process, many students are turned away from a higher education. There are also few entrances to higher education for Haiti 's adults. Vocational and technical schools are almost nonexistent.
An inability to receive post-secondary training and specialized skills has contributed to a decrease in economic productivity and living standards. High school graduates must have access to higher education if they so desire. Haiti needs more trained technicians. High school students who fail to pass the national examination must be directed to a system where they can meet the necessary requirements to have an equivalent diploma.
The purpose of this research was to assess the need for a community college system in Haiti and to design a plan for a community college system that will help individuals reach their potential. First, this study required taking into account the country's socio-economic situation and history of higher education, a financial status and educational level of current faculty. Second, this study assessed high school junior and senior students', professionals', and business and industry owners' level of satisfaction with Haiti 's current system.
Haiti 's future depends upon the availability of adequate programs of education. These programs should meet the needs of the country and complement the people's interests and abilities. The community college system will be based upon the principle that it must be comprehensive, provide access for all, optimize human resources, contribute towards building a democratic society, and protect the Haitian culture. Further study in financing community colleges, in the adult educational and university system, and curriculum must follow this study before creating a community college system in Haiti.]
RAMSEY, Kate. Performances Of Prohibition: Law, "Superstition," And National Modernity In Haiti. Pages: 00339. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: Columbia University 0054. Year: 2002. SUBJECT(S): Anthropology, Cultural; History, Latin American. SOURCE: DAI, 63, no. 03A (2002): p. 1026. ACCESSION #: AAI3048220. [ABSTRACT: My dissertation focuses on the series of penal laws which prohibited popular ritual practices in Haiti between 1835 and 1987, first as sortileges (spells) and later as pratiques superstitieuses (superstitious practices). It poses two key questions concerning the institutional and social histories of these statutes. First, why was the ban on popular ritual maintained as a fixture of the Haitian Code pénal for over one hundred and fifty years when the sustained application of these laws against socially-sanctioned religious practices was politically impossible for Haitian authorities? Second, what significance did these laws have for popular religious communities in Haiti, both at times when they were strictly enforced, and also, as was more generally the case, when they were not?
The project situates these questions in relation to the long history of Western discourses that have demonized African diasporic religious practices. It considers the way in which the laws promulgated against les sortilèges and les pratiques superstitieuses materialized the force of such colonial and ecclesiastical ideologies. In studying the historical circumstances under which this penal regime was first promulgated and then twice revised, in both cases to be tightened, the dissertation contends that these statutes functioned as both a sign and, at times, instrument of the élite state's determination to enforce “civilized” modernity in Haiti.
Drawing on ethnographic and archival research conducted in Haiti and the United States, it examines the political force and, frequently, paradoxical effects of these laws at three critical conjunctures: the late nineteenth century, following the return of the Roman Catholic Church to Haiti in 1860; the 1915–34 United States occupation of Haiti; and the Catholic Church's 1939–42 “anti-superstition campaign” under the post-occupation governments of Sténio Vincent and Elie Lescot. In each case, I am particularly concerned with how Haitian peasants and the urban poor managed to shape the enforcement of this penal regime according to popular conceptions of justice. The dissertation concludes with an analysis of the legacy of these laws in Haiti today.]
ROACH, Lisa Gayle. Refugee And Asylum Policy In The United States: Cubans And Haitians. Pages: 00082. Degree: M.A. Institution: Concordia University ( Canada ) 0228. Year: 2001. SUBJECT(S): Political Science, Public Administration; Sociology, Ethnic And Racial Studies. SOURCE: MAI, 40, no. 04 (2001): p. 904. ACCESSION #: AAIMQ64026. [ABSTRACT: Inconsistencies in U.S. refugee policies have been due to the complex matrix of actors who participate in such policy debates as well as of the impact these concerns have had on policy formulations in the United States. This paper will explore how the United States administration implements such policies, and the problems the implementation process presents to refugees from Haiti and Cuba.
The U.S. government's treatment of Haitians contrasts sharply with that accorded to Cubans, who for years have journeyed to the U.S. to escape difficult political and economic conditions in their country. While Haitians have been routinely sent back, Cubans have been automatically paroled into the U.S. The forced return policy has been criticized both within and outside the U.S. on the grounds that the interdiction program contradicts national and international prohibitions against refoulement, and selectively discriminates against Haitians.]
ROBINSON, Kim Dismont. Probing The Wound: Re-membering The Traumatic Landscape Of Caribbean Literary Histories (Edwidge Danticat, Haiti, Wilson Harris, Guyana, Elizabeth Nunez, Trinidad And Tobago). Pages: 00199. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: University of Miami 0125. Year: 2003. SUBJECT(S): ---. SOURCE: DAI, 64, no. 06A (2003): p. 2090. ACCESSION #: AAI3096371. [ABSTRACT: The works of literature produced by Caribbean writers such as Edwidge Danticat, Wilson Harris, and Elizabeth Nunez reveal a strong preoccupation with psychic fragmentation, violence, and present day remnants of the past. The literature appears as a partial, sometimes fragmented articulation of a cultural wound. To probe these wounds indicates a detailed investigation of the injury: the nature and scope of the trauma; the method of its inscription; the individual, national, and “historio-mythic” implications of the damage; and the possibility of healing.
Psychoanalytic theory, particularly trauma theory, provides useful tools with which to unpack some of the meaning behind the metaphors that emerge from Caribbean literature. The challenge from within a Caribbean context is to construct a culturally relevant version of psychoanalytic literary theory which draws sustenance from native traditions and survival strategies. An examination of Caribbean trauma in literature can be thought of as aided and moulded by traditional Western notions of psychoanalysis, but the reverse is also true—a Caribbean sensibility can offer alternate versions to current trends in psychoanalytic theories in literature.
This dissertation reveals linkages between the haunting repetitions of a traumatic event, an inability to fully claim the history of such an experience, and the notion of a postmodern, repeating Caribbean signalled by uncanny texts, paradoxical disruptions, and impossible histories.
Healing the traumas of history may not be either desirable or possible for reasons relating to witness morality. Although Caribbean notions of recovery from trauma may offer new avenues and possibilities, the idea of testimony is equally important. Testimony implies the process of bearing witness to an event even if, as is typical in the case of traumatic experiences, the act of witnessing is impossibly limited by gaps and voids in knowledge and memory. Even if some wounds cannot heal, it is equally important not to hide the wound as a marker of shame. ]
ROSSI, Jennifer Christianna. Souls Across Spaces: Ambiguity As Resistance And A New Generation Of Black Women Writers (Elaine Savory, Jacqueline Jones Royster, Shay Youngblood, Edwidge Danticat, Rebecca Walker, Haiti). Pages: 00407. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: State University of New York at Buffalo 0656. Year: 2003. SUBJECT(S): American Studies; Women's Studies; Literature, American; Black Studies. SOURCE: DAI, 64, no. 08A (2003): p. 2947. ACCESSION #: AAI3102398. [ABSTRACT: This dissertation explores the continuities and discontinuities in a new generation of Black women writers, in relation to Black women's literary traditions. Drawing on memory studies, Elaine Savory's theory of “ex/isle,” and Jacqueline Jones Royster's use of “sasa” and “zamani” time, I will show how writers Shay Youngblood, Edwidge Danticat, and Rebecca Walker break from identity politics, choosing ambiguous identities that resist limitations on their autonomy and writing. This dissertation addresses the following question: Why is this new generation of Black women writers defining a distinctive approach to exigent issues of identity, and how does this inform our understanding of evolving traditions of Black women's writing in America ? My theoretical framework combines Black women's literary and historical studies with memory studies—in order to situate these writers within the multiple contexts that directly inform their lives, writing, and activism. Only through interdisciplinary study can the multiple cultural codes and worldviews of these writers be accessed, in order to represent the complex identities of the writers themselves. By submitting their testimony into the public memory, Youngblood, Danticat, and Walker foster transformational dialogues among dissonant worlds and create space for human liberation and happiness.]
RUBEN-CHARLES, Zita. Elaboration, Mise A L'essai Et Analyse D'une Demarche D'intervention En Lecture Littéraire, Pour Des Elèves De 3e Secondaire En Haiti (French text). Pages: 00376. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: Université de Montréal ( Canada ) 0992. Year: 2002. SUBJECT(S): Education, Secondary. SOURCE: DAI, 63, no. 08A (2002): p. 2830. ACCESSION #: AAINQ71164. [ABSTRACT: L'enseignement du français en Haïti connaît une crise profonde. L'enquête que nous avons menée en janvier 1997 en témoigne et révèle un enseignement de la littérature en péril. Cette crise est organiquement liée au contexte social haïtien et à la conception même de l'enseignement du français. L'apprenant haïtien, diglossique, n'arrive pas à atteindre un niveau de compétence satisfaisant en français parce que, entre autres raisons, dans les activités pédagogiques, on lui propose des thèmes de travail sans rapport avec son vécu, dans une langue figée, à l'aide de théories et de méthodes dépassées. Tout se passe comme si l'on ignorait que le français est pour lui une langue seconde.
Notre recherche-action s'appuie sur les fondements théoriques suivants: d'une part, les théories de la réception (texte littéraire, lecture, langue maternelle, langue seconde, etc.); d'autre part, la théorie bakhtinienne du roman (dialogisme, plurilinguisme, chronotope); nous avons également accordé une place significative à la réflexion didactique et l'avons située dans la double démarche des savoirs et de l'enseignement.
L'objectif principal de cette thèse est d'élaborer, de mettre à l'essai et d'analyser une démarche d'intervention didactique en lecture littéraire qui vise à amener des apprenants haïtiens créolophones de 3 e secondaire à comprendre un roman en français langue seconde.
À partir du roman d'Edwidge Danticat, Le Cri de l'oiseau rouge, traduit de l'anglais au français, nous avons présenté une démarche d'enseignement/apprentissage de lecture et un ensemble de projets de lecture basés sur la communication orale, le travail en coopération, la lecture à voix haute. Nos instruments de collectes de données sont essentiellement (1) le journal de bord de la chercheure qui rend compte de ses observations en classe et de ses observations issues du questionnaire d'enquête sur les habitudes de lecture, ce qui nous a permis d'esquisser un portrait des apprenants; (2) l'entrevue sur la compréhension en lecture, et (3) deux questionnaires d'évaluation écrite de la compréhension. Nos stratégies d'enseignement/apprentissage comprennent les activités suivantes: le cercle de lecture, le questionnement réciproque, le débat, le jeu de rôle et la lecture à voix haute.
La séquence didactique élaborée a permis de faire avancer la réflexion sur les composantes d'une démarche d'enseignement/apprentissage, à la fois sous l'angle cognitif et affectif (savoir-faire et savoir-être). Les résultats les plus tangibles concernent en effet les objets d'étude, les apprenants et l'enseignant. Pour chacune de ces trois catégories: (1) nous avons identifié des difficultés; (2) nous avons décrit le but recherché; (3) nous avons proposé comme solutions des stratégies didactiques.
En conclusion, nos résultats devraient pouvoir apporter un changement dans l'enseignement/apprentissage de la lecture littéraire en Haïti et nourrir la didactique en général.]
SAGER, Rebecca Darlene. Musical Meaning Of Haitian Vodou Singing: An Ethnography Of Musical And Ritual Discourse At A Lakou Ginen In Northern Haiti. Pages: 00615. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: The University of Texas at Austin 0227. Year: 2002. SUBJECT(S): Music; Anthropology, cultural. SOURCE: DAI, 64, no. 11A (2002): p. 3901. ACCESSION #: AAI3110685. [ABSTRACT: This dissertation is an ethnography of Vodou singing and domestic ritual practices in Northern Haiti. The study elucidates Haitian Vodou singing's social significance and how its aesthetics and meanings contribute to its social value for participants in this study. Vodou singing operates within a broad social context of great suffering and persistent anti-Vodou sentiment bred of centuries of unchecked human exploitation in Haiti. This suffering may be seen largely as a moral crisis caused by an imbalance of self-interested action over social concerns. This study documents the role Vodou singing plays in constructing an alternate morality. It does this by modeling an ideal of social cooperation through its musical structures, by establishing interpersonal relations of mutual respect, and by transmitting spiritual values through its lyrics and even through singing in accordance with the expressive habits of the performance tradition established by the Vodou spirits. By teaching emotional discipline and respect, the spiritual practice of Haitian Vodou singing empowers practitioners to construct meaningful, healthful, productive lives even in the face of great adversity.
Musical meaning is explored in this study through both discourse centered and cognitive approaches. The later considers how the mental organization of musical experience impacts musical meaning while the former locates musical meaning within the realm of public discourses (sung and spoken). Expanding ethnomusicological theories of musical affect and signification, this study considers the potential of music's physiological and emotional effects to engender transcendent experiences—such as spirit possession trance—by altering a person's usual sense of self, time, or place. This study uses a variety of analysis and notation methods to explain a theory of musical processes and patterns—like song forms, melodic modes, and expressive stereotypes—underlying musical production in this community.
This dissertation adds to knowledge of domestic Vodou practices situated in the North of Haiti, and adds to the available literature on the role of devotional music in Vodou ceremony, social organization, and individual growth. As well, by balancing musical, linguistic, and anthropological investigation, this study integrates musical and lyrical meanings of song to an extant not achieved in previous studies of Vodou song.]
SATYRE, Joubert. Le Baroque Dans L'oeuvre Romanesque D'Emile Ollivier (Haiti, French text ). Pages: 00360. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: Universite de Montreal ( Canada ) 0992. Year: 2003. SUBJECT(S): Literature, modern. SOURCE: DAI, 64, no. 08A (2003): p. 2883.ACCESSION #: AAINQ82758. [ABSTRACT: There are two very different points of view on the historical status of “Baroque” in art Some scholars consider it as a given set of traits, constant throughout History, susceptible to come back at any point in time, while others consider Baroque as a movement that took place in a very precise period in time, in a delimited area: Europe, between the end of the 16 th and the beginning of the 17 th century. Some theoreticians add to this controversy by underlining how difficult it is to even try to define the term “Baroque”. In this particular context, it was central to prove, in our thesis, the pertinence of the Baroque concept as a theoretical tool that could be applied to the work of Émile Ollivier, a contemporary Haitian novelist. On numerous occasions, Ollivier himself has pointed out the Baroque nature of his novels. However, besides the author's assessment of his own texts, we have chosen to base our thesis on two observations: the emergence in the last few decades of a new Haitian novel, represented principally by Émile Ollivier; and the obvious lack of any theoretical studies on this new Haitian literature. Despite the controversies surrounding the use of the term “Baroque” in the study of literary texts that do not fit in the very narrow field defined by a few theoreticians, the use of Baroque aesthetics as a tool for analysing the work of Émile Ollivier has been most successful. It permits us to highlight not only the whole of its characteristics, but also its unity.
Our study of the novels by Émile Ollivier is based on two principal traits of baroque aesthetics: metamorphosis and ostentation, considered on the thematic and structural levels. This choice explains the division of the thesis in two parts: Part One is dedicated to the study of metamorphosis and ostentation on the thematic and motifs level; Part Two is dedicated to the study of metamorphosis and ostentation on the structural level. Metamorphosis expresses the degradation of the world (of reality), while ostentation, with its emphasis on the theatrical, somewhat refrains the drifting caused by changes. The decor is set: Baroque aesthetics puts opposites in presence, because, beyond the antitheses that energize its dynamics, it is a quest for the original unity.
It is our hope that this research will allow a new reading not only of Haitian literature in particular, but also of francophone literatures from the West Indies in general, because the notions of hybridity and magical realism, so often encountered in these literatures, are somehow connected to baroque.]
SAUNDERS, Kristyn Jane. Sugar And Spice: Slavery, Women, And Literature In The Caribbean (Michelle Cliff, Jamaica, Maryse Conde, Guadeloupe, Edwidge Danticat, Haiti, Jamaica Kincaid, Antigua). Pages: 00239. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: Columbia University 0054. Year: 2003. SUBJECT(S): Literature, Comparative; Literature, American; Literature, English. SOURCE: DAI, 64, no. 04A (2003): p. 1246. ACCESSION #: AAI3088416. [ABSTRACT: This dissertation considers the ways in which contemporary Anglophone and Francophone Afro-Caribbean women writers imagine the relationship between two historical moments: the era of trans-Atlantic slavery and the 20th century. While it is taken as self-evident that Caribbean literature is deeply concerned with “history,” critical analysis of female-authored fiction has paid little attention to the ways in which the specter of colonial slavery arises in and interrupts the contemporary stories told. Drawing upon the language of trauma used in Holocaust studies, and notions of haunting that have emerged in contemporary African- and Latin-American literary studies, Sugar & Spice suggests that it is the distinctive story of women and slavery in the sugar islands that forms the deep structures of imagination in this body of literature. Reading the work of Michelle Cliff, Maryse Condé, Edwidge Danticat, and Jamaica Kincaid, this dissertation argues that the narrative present of their fiction is mapped, both structurally and thematically, onto the historical past. The narratives entwine this past with the narrative present in a number of ways: temporal displacements and layerings; patterns of repeating and circular imagery, especially the pervasive use of images of rupture, loss, and flight; and the fleeting appearances of figures at structurally important junctures—historical figures such as slave ships, revolutionary leaders, and ruins, and spatial structures such as the plantation, the sea, and the big house. In each of the narratives read, there is, to varying degrees, an insistence upon rather than a resolution of the trauma of slavery; and the process of mourning that historical period appears as an ongoing process. Sugar & Spice suggests, then, that the era of slavery is an integral part of post-colonial literary representation by Caribbean women, that their fiction is deeply informed by, and needs to be read more closely in terms of, the longer troubled history of the region since 1492.]
SCHLEPPE, Beatriz Eugenia. Empowering New Identities In Postcolonial Literature By Francophone Women Writers (Calixthe Beyala, Cameroon, Leila Sebbar, Edwidge Danticat, Algeria, Haiti). Pages: 00221. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: The University of Texas at Austin 0227. Year: 2003. SUBJECT(S): Literature, modern; Literature, african. SOURCE: DAI, 64, no. 12A (2003): p. 4459. ACCESSION #: AAI3116178. [ABSTRACT: Twentieth-century French scholars have extensively studied postcolonial literature dealing with identity issues rooted in colonialism, yet these studies do not address the emergence of new definitions of Identity found in the controversial literature of today's Francophone women writers of immigrant descent living outside their country of origin—either in France or is the U.S. My dissertation is such a study. It shows how through their novels, these young writers re-define and re-construct such notions as race, gender, ethnicity and nationality and are continuously challenging fixed, hegemonic labels such as “French,” “Black,” “Woman,” “African,” and “American.” I explore the methods of resistance to these powerful labels and how this resistance leads to a mediation of identities in three Francophone women writers from different French ex-colonies: Calixthe Beyala from Cameroon, Leïla Sebbar from Algeria and Edwidge Danticat from Haiti. I show how the intersections between plural identities serve as sites of negotiating and re-creating the “postcolonial woman” and how through their work postcolonial Francophone women writers dare to imagine new realities in a constantly shifting and emerging multi-ethnic society.
The introduction discusses the power of fixed identity labels and shows how until now they have been taken for granted in Francophone literatures.
The first chapter focuses on Leïla Sebbar's work and on the “interstices” created by the constant mobility and instability found in her Shérazade trilogy.
The second chapter focuses on the re-creation of female identity in Calixthe Beyala's Assèze l'Africaine by looking at how the female protagonists juggle between Western definitions of femininity and that of their mothers and grandmothers.
The third chapter explores the work of Edwidge Danticat and shows how through her re-telling of traditions/the past Identity gets re-invented.
In my conclusion I explore another space of Identity negotiation which is between resisting and “conforming” by looking at reception issues (popularization of Otherness) and neo-colonialism. I examine whether these authors are affirming their emerging reality as an Identity in constant flux or whether they are just targeting an audience like Oprah Winfrey's Book Club (in the case of Danticat) or Sebbar and Beyala's multi-ethnic hip Parisian readers. I finally suggest that the space in-between these two positions is yet another way of resisting the power of identity “labels” and daring to re-create new possibilities. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)]
SHABAKA, Segun. An Afrocentric Analysis Of The 19th Century African-American Migration To Haiti: A Quest For The Self-determining Community. Pages: 00311. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: Temple University 0225. Year: 2001. SUBJECT(S): Sociology, Ethnic; And Racial Studies; History, Black; History, African. SOURCE: DAI, 62, no. 11A (2001): p. 3896. ACCESSION #: AAI3031556. [ABSTRACT: One of the major forms of resistance to African enslavement, researched by scholars of this field, was to flee or escape. Sometimes fleeing meant fending for oneself in the wilderness, joining a rebel, maroon, or runaway community, moving to a slave-free state or, rarely, a slave-free country and, in the rarest of all cases, relocation to an independent Black nation.
The latter is the scope of this scholarly work entitled An Afrocentric Analysis of the 19 th Century African-American Migration to Haiti : A Quest for the Self-Determining Community. It covers the unprecedented and unsurpassed short-term mass movement of 6,000 to 13,000 Africans in the United States to the Caribbean Island of Haiti, also referred to as Saint Dominique or Santo Domingo. There is extensive investigation of the Haitian Revolution and nation, the two important preludes to the emigration.
The problem with the many and varied studies by scholars on the emigration and colonization responses to the system of African enslavement and oppression in the Americas is that they have almost exclusively been limited to projects and schemes initiated by non-African people.
This work also looks at the ideologies, organizations, and personalities behind many of them. Additionally, this research project looks at many of the discourses and dialogues on colonization and emigration before and during the early 1800's as well as several decades beyond the 1824–1825 Haitian Emigration Movement itself, and examines the actions and programs that emerged from the various meetings and conferences on the subject.]
SHAMSIE, Yasmine H. The Politics Of Building Democracies: Efforts ByThe Organization Of American States To Promote Democracy In Haiti (1990--1998). Pages: 00596. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: York University ( Canada ) 0267. Year: 2001. SUBJECT(S): Political Science, General; Political Science, International Law And Relations; History, Latin American. SOURCE: DAI, 63, no. 02A (2001): p. 742. ACCESSION #: AAINQ66363. [ABSTRACT: This dissertation explores the phenomenon of democracy assistance by examining the democracy promotion activities of the Organization of American States (OAS), with particular emphasis on its efforts to restore and promote democracy in Haiti between 1990 and 1998. The case study reveals that marked contradictions have emerged as the Organization tries to promote democratic outcomes while both supporting and facilitating the workings of a profoundly undemocratic trading and economic system. More specifically, political and economic reforms endorsed by the OAS have served to reinforce the position of Haiti 's dominant classes (especially those associated with transnational capital) while failing to improve the political and economic prospects of the majority of Haitians.
Moreover, upon examining the democracy work of the OAS, it becomes clear that the political form being promoted and defended is a variant of representative democracy able to absorb the political tensions associated with global restructuring (by limiting participation to elections) and which leaves structured relations of power deriving from socio-economic organization untouched.
The consequences of advancing this understanding of democracy over a study demonstrates. The fact that democracy was being promoted alongside the liberation of market forces deeply affected the prospects of democratic change in that country. Indeed, the scope for national decision-making was narrowly defined by international financial institutions and any prospects for political debate over alternative socio-economic visions dismissed or side-lined.
This case study suggests that OAS efforts to promote democracy in Haiti were, therefore, undermined by the Organization's tacit but firm commitment to the neo-liberal economic model that is sweeping the region, as well as its antipathy for popular notions of democracy and broader more extensive forms of social change. Only in this way can one explain why the Organization would encourage and assist electoral processes and institutions building (the markers of representative democracy), while working against the political and economic vision of its first truly democratically elected President.]
SHIELDS, William Harr. A Subsector Analysis Of The Improved Bean Market In Haiti. Pages: 00106. Degree: M.S. Institution: Michigan State University 0128. Year: 2002. SUBJECT(S): Economics, Agricultural. SOURCE: MAI, 41, no. 01 (2002): p. 73. ACCESSION #: AAI1409558. [ABSTRACT: Lack of farmer access to improved crop seeds is one of the chief constraints to increasing agricultural production in developing countries. In Haiti, one of the poorest countries in the world, a small but vibrant seed sector is slowly emerging from mostly informal partnerships between public, private, and non-governmental organizations to provide Haitian farmers with improved seeds.
This study describes the Haitian market for improved bean seed through a subsector analysis and observes actors' attempts to minimize their information-related transaction costs. These transaction costs are particularly high in Haiti because decades of economic and political turmoil have enervated the public institutions that would otherwise work to reduce them.
The study finds that this nascent seed industry relies upon linkages with international research organizations, social capital, and traditional farmer organizations to reduce information costs in the subsector. An unexpected finding is that even the poorest Haitian farmers have a strong seasonal demand for improved bean seed and are willing to pay a premium price for it. This result suggests that government-level institutional and policy reforms may further reduce information costs, help increase farmer adoption of improved beans, and enable the development of a strong private sector.]
SMALL, Curtis, Jr. "Cet homme est une nation": The leader and the collectivity in literary representations of the Haitian Revolution (Hugo, Lamartine, Glissant, Cesaire) (Victor Hugo, Alphonse de Lamartine, Edouard Glissant, Aime Cesaire). Pages: 00227. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: New York University 0146. Year: 2001. SUBJECT(S): Literature, Romance; Literature, Comparative. SOURCE: DAI, 62, no. 03A (2001): p. 1047. ACCESSION #: AAI3009350. [ABSTRACT: This study explores contrasting representations of the relationship between the leader and the collectivity in four literary texts on the Haitian Revolution. The first two texts are by French writers from the nineteenth century (Victor Hugo's 1826 novel Bug Jargal and Alphonse de Lamartine's verse drama of 1850, Toussaint Louverture ). The second two are by Martinicans (Edouard Glissant's play Monsieur Toussaint, published 1961,and Aimé Césaire's play La Tragedie du Roi Christophe, published in 1963).
The introduction to Part I of the dissertation discusses the ambivalent, double-edged representations of slaves in revolt that characterized eighteenth-century French abolitionist discourse. The texts discussed in the first two chapters of the dissertation draw on this tradition. Chapter I argues that, while the French Revolution is putting the monarchy in crisis, Hugo's Bug Jargal responds by constructing a fictitious Haitian revolutionary leader, who functions as a metaphorical link between Blacks and Whites. Thus the novel relegates historical leaders of the Haitian Revolution to the margins of the text. Chapter 11 argues that, in Lamartine's play, Toussaint displays the split subjectivity found in earlier abolitionist representations. At the same time, this romanticized construction glosses over his dictatorial tendencies.
The introduction to Part II of the dissertation lays out the ideological contexts that saw the arrival of African independence, during which time Haiti 's Revolution was re-examined. Also discussed here is the significance of Haiti and the Revolution in the Negritude movement. Chapter III is a reading of Glissant's Monsieur Toussaint. Chapter IV discusses La Tragedie du Roi Christophe. While analyzing the formal elements that distinguish these two plays, the chapters reveal that both texts participate in the literary nationalism that characterized the Nineteen Sixties. In both representations the leader's betrayal of his revolutionary “vision” coexists with his symbolic apotheosis, his inauguration as a “founding father.” The conclusion of the dissertation explores the ramifications of the various representations that have been examined, and briefly discusses Bernard Dadié's play Iles de tempêtes (1973), which points beyond the heroic, patriarchal preoccupations of the four texts discussed earlier in the dissertation.]
SMITH, Matthew Jordan. Shades Of Red In A Black Republic: Radicalism, Black Consciousness, And Social Conflict In Postoccupation Haiti, 1934--1957. Pages: 00371. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: University of Florida 0070. Year: 2002. SUBJECT(S): History, Latin American. SOURCE: DAI, 63, no. 10A (2002): p. 3686. ACCESSION #: AAI3065989. [ABSTRACT: In 1934, at the end of nineteen years of United States military occupation, the black republic of Haiti underwent a transition that was to dramatically affect the course of its political history which, since the nineteenth century, had been defined by bitter regional and color conflicts. Between the end of the Occupation and the Duvalier era, a spate of political movements emerged that opened the political field and forced a reevaluation of Haitian national discourse. The experience of foreign occupation and its resultant intensification of historical divisions between the light-skinned elite and black middle and lower classes, forced a revival of Haitian nationalism that was marked by an emphasis on black consciousness. At the same time, members of the Haitian intelligentsia became increasingly attracted to radical political ideologies as a solution to Haiti 's social and economic problems. During the désoccupation this thinking led to the creation of several political movements, the principal ones being Marxism and Noirisme, a political ideology that advocates that state power should be in the control of representatives of the black majority. From the beginning neither movement exerted a significant influence over the country's largely poverty-stricken rural populace. Haitian radicalism remained urban and elite-driven throughout its career in the forties and fifties. Nonetheless, these movements, in tandem with the burgeoning labor and student movements, defined the way in which postoccupation Haiti would evolve. This influence was clearly demonstrated in the Revolution of 1946, an unprecedented event in the history of modern Haiti, which resulted in the inauguration of the first democratically elected black president of the postwar period, Dumarsais Estimé. For the next decade, the course of national politics was influenced by the ideological struggle between these groups. It was the electoral victory of François Duvalier in September 1957 whose dictatorial regime abruptly ended the political effervescence that had begun in the thirties; only then did these political movements cease to be influential.
This study is a social and political history of the radical movements that developed as a response to the nineteen-year U.S. marine occupation of the island and the ways in which they shaped national politics in the period before the Duvalier dictatorship. It explores the connections between historical color and class divisions, exacerbated by the occupation, and the activities of radical groups, namely militant elites, black nationalists, labor unions, university students, and communist parties.
The study draws on research in public and private archives in four different countries along with extensive interviews of various political figures of the era, and reveals a far richer and more complex picture of the interplay among political forces than that suggested by the existing historiography. In addition, this study challenges common assumptions that Haitian black nationalism developed uncontested during the period by emphasizing far-reaching ideological, regional, intra-class, and color conflicts among groups competing for state control. ]
SMITH, Stephen Ray. Leadership Style Preferences Of Haitian Physicians And American Physicians With Experience Providing Medical Care In Haiti: A Comparative Analysis. Pages: 00143. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: Regent University 1058. Year: 2002. SUBJECT(S): Health Sciences, Hospital Management; Health Sciences, Medicine And Surgery. SOURCE: DAI, 63, no. 12B (2002): p. 5747. ACCESSION #: AAI3075443. [ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of national and organizational culture on the preferred leadership styles of Haitian physicians and American physicians with experience providing short-term or long-term medical care and training in Haiti. Self-perceived transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership style preferences of 138 participants were examined to identify similarities and differences between the two cohorts. The literature review identified both national and organizational culture as potential moderating influences on physician leadership style preferences. Participants were 70 American and 68 Haitian physicians. Participants completed the self-report, Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (5x form) to measure frequency of transformational and transactional leadership style preferences. The results of this research confirmed that American physicians preferred transformational leadership styles to active, constructive transactional leadership styles while Haitian physicians equally preferred transformational and active, constructive transactional leadership styles. Neither cohort preferred laissez-faire leadership style. Outcomes of satisfaction and effectiveness were more strongly associated with transformational leadership style than with transactional leadership style. Physician perception of willingness of subordinates to produce extra effort was more strongly associated with the transformational leadership style than with the transactional leadership style. The results of this research contributed to the understanding of leadership style preferences of physicians.]
SPENCER, Suzette A. Stealing A Way: African Diaspora Maroon Poetics (Henry "Box" Brown, Elizabeth Keckley, Michelle Cliff, Jamaica). Pages: 00346. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: University of California, Berkeley 0028. Year: 2002. SUBJECT(S): Literature, American; Women's Studies; Sociology, Ethnic And Racial Studies; Literature, Modern; Black Studies; Biography. SOURCE: DAI, 63, no. 09A (2002): p. 3188. ACCESSION #: AAI3063561. [ABSTRACT: Using interdisciplinary methodology, Stealing A Way argues that the socio-political histories, cultures, and traditions of African Diaspora maroon societies, particularly those in the Caribbean and the United States, can be used as a basis for forming an African Diaspora literary theory and for reconsidering enslaved and newly emancipated subjects' struggles for self-ownership and nationhood. I posit that there is a grammar of maroonage —a structure of historically informed constituent elements—that underwrites African American and Caribbean literatures and cultures. I propose that several tactics used by transnational maroon groups are refigured metaphorically in Diaspora literatures as a series of narrative tropes that constitute the grammar of maroonage. The study demonstrates how these tropes obtain across a range of literatures from the nineteenth century to the present, and includes forms as diverse as the slave narrative, nineteenth-century visual culture, African New World cosmological inscriptions, and twentieth-century envisionings of African Diaspora resistances.
Chapter one reviews historical maroonage in sites as diverse as Jamaica, North America, Suriname, Haiti, and South America, and considers legal cases alongside Maroon Treaties to illustrate how these different histories and geographic locations incited comparable conceptual figurations of maroonage. To theorize Henry “Box” Brown's oeuvre as a transatlantic maroon corps, chapter three examines Brown's 1849 escape from slavery in a box, his narratives about the escape, and his panorama performances in Europe and North America. I argue that Brown's maroon corps embeds a profound anti-colonial imperative, especially when his panoramas are read against the Great Exhibition of 1851, and when his narratives are read in relation to American law. Chapter four considers Elizabeth Keckley's 1868 slave narrative as a “civil war,” positing that through recourse to popular nineteenth-century forms such as the panorama, the panopticon, and the stage, Keckley battles, like a camouflaged maroon, for self authority against Mrs. Lincoln's dominion. Chapter five reads Michelle Cliff's three novels as a Diaspora maroon trilogy. I argue further that Cliff uses the African New World symbol of the Kongo Cosmogram as a suturing and structuring chronotope to connect her three works.]
STEVENS, Shelley Patricia. Zonbis, Zobop And Zanj: A History Of Haitian Metal Arts. Pages: 00157. Degree: M.A. Institution: Emory University 0665. Year: 2003. SUBJECT(S): Art History. SOURCE: MAI, 41, no. 05 (2003): p. 1226. ACCESSION #: AAI1413021. [ABSTRACT: This thesis provides a history of the metal arts of Haiti from 1953 to the present. A group of eight sculptors is presented here that includes Georges Liautaud, Murat Brierre, the brothers Janvier, Seresier and Joseph Louisjuste, Serge Jolimeau, Damien Paul and Gabriel Bien-Aimé. Their sculptures are made from recycled steel oil drums and other reclaimed iron objects. A generational scheme is developed here that situates the metal artists within their own historical trajectory beginning with the ‘discovery' of Liautaud in Croix-des-Bouquets in 1953. A catalog of 188 published metal works by the eight artists was developed during the course of research for this project and is presented here. From this catalog, three representative sculptures were selected for detailed analysis: (1) Les Trois Hermaphrodites ( The Three Hermaphrodites ) by Jolimeau (1981); (2) Zobop by Liautaud (1973); and (3) Untitled ( Christ on the Road to Calvary ) by Bien-Aimé (c. 1990). (Abstract shortened by UMI.)]
T. CUENCO, Karen. The Influence Of Familial And Environmental Risk Factors On Lymphedema Of The Leg In A Lymphatic Filariasis Endemic Area. Pages: 00138. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: Emory University 0665. Year: 2001. SUBJECT(S): Health Sciences, Public Health; Biology, Genetics. SOURCE: DAI, 62, no. 03B (2001): p. 1355. ACCESSION #: AAI3009478. [ABSTRACT: Factors influencing the distribution of lymphatic filariasis have not been well defined. Although microfilaremia has been suggested to cluster in families, information about familial clustering of lymphedema is more limited. To address this issue, pedigrees and environmental data were collected from lymphedema patients enrolled in a lymphedema treatment clinic in Leogane, Haiti. Clinic patients were selected as study probands.
Pedigree interviews were performed to obtain information about proband first-degree relatives, half-siblings, children of half-siblings. Existing statistical procedures for analyzing complex pedigree data ascertained through a proband were used on this novel set of family data to provide initial insight into the relationship between lymphedema and genetic factors.
Pedigrees were analyzed to determine whether families observed to have multiple lymphedema cases had a lymphedema prevalence different than expected when stratified population estimates and family size were considered. Based on analyses, the null hypothesis that the proportion of families with excess disease was the same as expected using population estimates was rejected (p = 0.05). According to sensitivity analyses, the results did not change dramatically after taking into consideration ascertainment of families through a proband.
Parents, full-siblings, half-siblings, and children of the proband were assessed for increased odds of concordant disease outcomes. Parents and children of the proband tended to have discordant disease outcomes (OR = 0.034, 95% confidence interval = [0.02, 0.058]). This may be due to children not having reached the age of onset for lymphedema. Confidence intervals for the remaining comparisons were too wide to draw any conclusions. Clinic patients were matched to a relative control to identify potential environmental risk factors for lymphedema development. Conditional logistic regression models indicated that ditches present outside the home were more common at homes of clinic patients than homes of relative controls (OR = 10.5482, 95% confidence interval = [3.0175, 56.8628]).
While certain families appeared to have excess lymphedema cases, which is arguably supportive evidence for familial aggregation of lymphedema, other analyses indicated the contrary. Limitations in the data, including ascertainment through a proband and participants' inability to recall family demographics, and statistical techniques make it difficult to draw definitive conclusions.]
THEODORE, Wendy Leah. Race And Foreign Policy: The Case Of Trinidad And Tobago, 1962--1994. Pages: 00306. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: Arizona State University 0010. Year: 2002. SUBJECT(S): Political Science, International Law And Relations. SOURCE: DAI, 63, no. 05A (2002): p. 1984. ACCESSION #: AAI3054670. [ABSTRACT: This dissertation examines two cases of foreign policy-making in Trinidad : nonintervention into Grenada in 1983; and the decision to intervene into Haiti in 1994. The argument is that the foreign policy decisions can be explained in part by the rearticulation of racial identities of domestic racial groups. The change in identity arises from two domestic crises in race relations: the 1970 Black Power Revolution; and the 1990 attempted coup of Abu Bakr. These crises lead to the formation of new interests that foreign policy decision-making elites must consider in their attempts to maintain stable domestic race relations. Therefore, foreign policy decision-makers must consider racial groups' interests from the domestic realm as well as interests in the international and regional environment when setting policy.
A racial identity framework was designed as an interpretive tool to facilitate the investigation into how racial group interests enter into the foreign policy decision-making equation. When applied to the first case of foreign policy decision-making, the analysis showed that the Prime Minister's decision of nonintervention was opposed by blacks and tacitly approved of by Indians. Thus, the first case does not support my contention that decision-makers must consider the interests arising from racial identities. Social conflict could have been avoided had the Prime Minister been more astute in examining domestic race relations. In the second case, the Prime Minister's decision to intervene was supported by middle-class blacks and Indians, but black opposition came along class lines. Therefore, this case provides evidence to support the argument in this dissertation. Since the Prime Minister's decision reflected the domestic interests of blacks and Indians, social conflict was avoided.]
THOMPSON, Shirley Elizabeth. The Passing Of A People: Creoles Of Color In Mid-Nineteenth Century New Orleans (Louisiana). Pages: 00321. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: Harvard University 0084. Year: 2001. SUBJECT(S): American Studies; History, Black; History, United States. SOURCE: DAI, 62, no. 04A (2001): p. 1475. ACCESSION #: AAI3011499. [ABSTRACT: In this dissertation, I consider how Creoles of color engaged in several types of “passing” throughout the mid-nineteenth century. This period has been characterized as one of “Americanization.” This process entailed the shift from a francophone to an anglophone culture and also the shift from a fluid notion of race to a black/white binary. As francophone people of African descent, Creoles of color were on the “losing” side of both shifts and struggled to reformulate their social and political identities.
For these people, the term “passing” held multiple meanings. It referred to the “passing away” of their cultural context. Complicating the narrative of cultural “passing away,” I examine how local and international sensibilities challenged municipal accommodations of Anglo-American understandings of race and culture.
“Passing” also meant “racial passing”—passing as white, passing as black. I examine two parallel instances, one successful and the other a failure, of passing as white in the 1850s. Reading Reconstruction-era newspapers published by prominent Creoles of color, I also consider their attempts at passing as black. In creating a political identity allying them to English-speaking black Americans, a group from which they had been culturally and experientially distinct, the journalists appealed to and as black Americans.
For this group under the duress of cultural upheaval and racial transformation, “passing” frequently referred to the “passing on” of legacies of stories and property. I consider the various media involved in this process: archival records, such as court cases and letters; literature, such as short stories, and poetry; and folklore, such as songs and imaginative genealogy. I especially examine the creation and maintenance of gender roles and rules through the “passing on” of propriety and property to Creole of color women.
Finally, “passing” suggests the complexities of their “passing through” the place of New Orleans. I consider this process as histories of the city have imagined it and as nineteenth century Creoles of color experienced it. In constructing this spatial map, I journey into places within the city that resisted anglophone culture. I also draw connections among Creoles of color and the francophone world, chiefly Haiti and France.]
TINSLEY, Natasha Alyssa. Thiefing Sugar: Reading Eroticism Between Women In Caribbean Literature. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: University of California, Berkeley 0028. Year: 2003. SUBJECT(S): Literature, comparative. SOURCE: DAI, 65, no. 02A (2003): p. 506. ACCESSION #: AAI3121731. [ABSTRACT: This dissertation investigates Caribbean women's oral, written, and performance texts that refigure landscape metaphors to speak back to (neo)colonial imaginations of the “natures” of race, gender, and sexuality. Collecting texts from Suriname, Haiti, Antigua, Martinique, Cuba, Guyana, and Trinidad, I turn to artistic expressions ranging from couples' dance to experimental novels in order to open dialogue with theorists including Edouard Glissant, Antonio Benitez-Rojo, Joan Dayan, Audre Lorde, Luce Irigaray, Toril Moi, Frantz Fanon, and Chela Sandoval. The songs, dances, poems, and novels I discuss map intersections between women's erotic love for women and pan-Caribbean issues of sex work, colonial law, imperial exhibitions, world wars, and revolutionary politics. Engaging cultural and environmental history as well as postcolonial and feminist theory, I explore how love between Caribbean women shapes and is shaped by concrete geographic and historic situations.
This study begins at the opening of the twentieth century and runs through its final decade. Beginning in the colonial period, the first chapter examines reformations of woman-as-flower metaphors in the oral and performance poetry of working-class Afro-Surinamese women who love women in turn of the century Paramaribo. The second excavates the long-buried erotic poems to women written in the 1920s and 30s by Ida Salomon Faubert, daughter of a president of Haiti, who obliquely returns to the tropical gardens of the Caribbean to write her love for women under cover. Moving into the era of decolonization, the third chapter turns to World War II in the Caribbean to perform a queer reading of the river- and sea-side love scenes manqués in a novel made infamous by Frantz Fanon's shredding criticism: Mayotte Capécia's Je suis Martiniquaise, the first published novel by a Francophone Caribbean woman. The final chapter enters the linguistic and erotic politics of the nominally postcolonial period to examine Dionne Brand's reclaiming of two similarly exploited topoi—the cane field and women's sexuality—in her novel In Another Place, Not Here. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)]
VARISCO, Susan Leah. Narrative Decisionmaking And The Clinton Administration's Peacekeeping Experiment. Pages: 00229. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: Columbia University 0054. Year: 2001. SUBJECT(S): Political Science, International Law And Relations; History, United States. SOURCE: DAI, 62, no. 10A (2001): p. 3564. ACCESSION #: AAI3028599. [ABSTRACT: In this dissertation I propose a reconceptualization of the political decisionmaker and the policymaking process. I argue that traditional political science approaches do not accurately capture the way in which political decisions are actually or the essence of what decisions are actually about. I contend that the central concern of political life is a search for meaning. That the decision process is, at its core, an attempt to figure out how to act in the world in a meaningful way. The principal mechanism through which all humans apprehend the world and create meaning is culturally based narratives. I extend this insight to political decisionmakers and argue that policymakers are natural storytellers who understand and act in the world according to ever evolving, culturally based political narratives.
A narrative approach is particularly revealing in those historical moments when the prevailing storyline falls apart such as the post-Cold War period, and in policy arenas that fall outside of traditional conceptions of interest such as humanitarian operations. I examine the Clinton Administration's peacekeeping policy in Somalia, Rwanda, and Haiti from a narrative perspective. I find that the Clinton Administration used its peacekeeping policy as a vehicle for acting out a particular vision of America and a new post-Cold War international order. In each of the three cases the administration's ideas about order and purpose were conveyed in story form. Once deployed, a good story can and did capture the policy process in a way that made some outcomes more likely and foreclosed others.]
VIKIS, Alexia Diana. Contemporary Women Writers From The French And Spanish-Speaking Caribbean: A Comparative Literature Course. Pages: 00211. Degree: D.A. Institution: George Mason University 0883. Year: 2002. SUBJECT(S): Education, Community; College Literature, Comparative. SOURCE: DAI, 63, no. 07A (2002): p. 2441. ACCESSION #: AAI3059618. [ABSTRACT: This course design dissertation addresses the issue of the scarcity of comparative literature courses in community colleges, as well as the advantages of offering such courses. Expounded upon are the various components of a semester-long comparative literature course on contemporary women writers from the islands of Cuba, Hispaniola ( Dominican Republic and Haiti ), Guadeloupe, Martinique, and Puerto Rico. The course mainly focuses on the themes of orality, the act of writing, eroticism, marginalization, subversion, history, immigration and exile, and identity. Part of the dissertation takes the form of a handbook that aims to assist the process of introducing into the college classroom a variety of writings by contemporary women from the French and Spanish-speaking Caribbean. It contains a section on the course material (detailed syllabus, guidelines and topics for students' written and oral assignments, lists of readings, questions for the online forum, etc.), supportive pedagogical information, as well as several lesson plans. This study is helpful to anyone interested in, but relatively unfamiliar with contemporary literature by women authors from the Francophone and Hispanophone Caribbean. It should prove especially valuable to faculty members involved in course development in this particular area of literature. Although this course is primarily intended for community college students, it can easily be applied for university students willing to expand their knowledge of contemporary Caribbean literature, as well as of the historical, political, social, and cultural complexities of this fascinating area of the world.]
WAH, Tatiana Kaw-Siu. Expatriate Reconnection: An Alternative Approach To Expatriate Recovery And Engagement For Homeland Development: The Case Of Haiti. Pages: 00298. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: Rutgers The State University of New Jersey - New Brunswick 0190. Year: 2001. SUBJECT(S): Urban And Regional Planning; Sociology, Social Structure And Development; Sociology, Theory And Methods. SOURCE: DAI, 62, no. 01A (2001): p. 358. ACCESSION #: AAI3000868. [ABSTRACT: Having acquired up-to-date knowledge and resources abroad, skilled and experienced expatriates are seen as a source of competitive advantage for less developed countries (LDCs). Governments of these countries and international agencies are actively promoting the recovery and engagement of expatriates to help their homeland. Yet, the processes through which successful strategies are constructed are not well understood and merit serious attention. This dissertation is a response to the continuing debate and search for appropriate programs, strategies and policies to regain and engage expatriates and their resources in their homelands' development efforts. As a specific case study, this dissertation examines the experience of Haiti.
The dissertation investigates the emergence of expatriates in the more developed countries (MDCs), the connections between expatriates and their homeland, the significance of expatriates, and the various approaches to regaining and engaging expatriates. It does this first in general for LDCs, then in particular for Haiti. Its main objective is to inquire into why Haiti 's approach has been largely unsuccessful. The dissertation marries a conceptualization methodology with an institutional approach and an evaluation research method to study expatriate strategies in LDCs.
On the basis of past and emerging themes on the contribution and utilization of expatriates in homeland development, this dissertation develops a conceptual/analytical framework for better understanding, examining, and undertaking such strategic processes, which it applies to Haiti. It argues that an effective recovery and engagement strategy must address not just the needs of the homeland but also those of expatriates. A recurrent theme is that mutual needs and interests must be satisfied. The concept of expatriate reconnection is proposed as a prime mechanism to redress the dislocation of needed skilled human and material resources brought on by the growth of expatriate communities in MDCs. Altogether, the dissertation is an effort to broaden our conception of how expatriate strategies are successfully actualized. It intends to help us rethink the nature, content and location of such strategies so that they are more consonant with the ways in which diverse expatriate and national communities build their worlds and improve their standard of living.]
WHITE, Ashli. "A flood of impure lava": Saint Dominguan refugees in the United States, 1791--1820. Pages: 00327. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: Columbia University 0054. Year: 2003. SUBJECT(S): History, United States; Sociology, Ethnic And Racial Studies. SOURCE: DAI, 64, no. 04A (2003): p. 1382. ACCESSION #: AAI3088451. [ABSTRACT: From 1791 to 1804 slaves in the wealthiest colony in the Americas—the French Caribbean colony of Saint Domingue—carried out a war for freedom that resulted in the foundation of the second republic in the New World, the independent nation of Haiti. Throughout the 1790s residents in the United States kept abreast of the course of the revolution in Saint Domingue because it affected them in numerous ways. One of the most visible consequences of the Haitian Revolution was the arrival of thousands of refugees to American cities. Between 1793 and 1809, at least 15,000 exiles—white, black, and free people of color—disembarked everywhere from New York to New Orleans, pressing demands and exciting debates among local inhabitants that lasted for decades.
This dissertation examines the experiences of the Saint Dominguans in the United States and also Americans' responses to the exiles. Drawing on a variety of sources—from French and American government records, newspapers, correspondence, and political tracts to wills, inventories, cartoons, and popular plays—this work charts the challenges both Saint Dominguans and Americans faced in light of this migration. The arrival of the refugees affected the everyday lives of wide swaths of the American population—northerners and southerners, women and men, slaves and freemen, merchants and planters, laborers and politicians. The exiles also ignited intense controversy because of the unusual circumstances of their flight, their contentious politics, and their diverse racial composition. They influenced debates over slavery, abolition, charity, trade, domestic politics, and the law at a critical moment in American history, just after the ratification of the Constitution. While the exiles were eventually absorbed into their communities, they persisted in the imaginations of Americans well into the antebellum era as citizens continued to wrestle with the meaning of the Haitian Revolution for the United States.]
WIGGINTON, Sheridan Loraine. El negro detras de la oreja: A critical theory approach to Dominican ethnicity through textbooks. Pages: 00157. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: University of Missouri - Columbia 0133. Year: 2001. SUBJECT(S): Sociology, Ethnic And Racial Studies; Education, Social Sciences. SOURCE: DAI, 63, no. 12A (2001): p. 4488. ACCESSION #: AAI3075413. [ABSTRACT: This project seeks to deepen the understanding of how social science textbooks used in Dominican public schools portray the historical, cultural and ethnic identity of the country to its students. The investigation presented here serves as a means of bridging research on educational curriculum, which functions as a “cultural vector”, and issues of ethnicity and identity in the context of the Dominican Republic. Concepts of ethnicity and identity are particularly difficult to define in the Dominican Republic, owing to the cultural and genetic contributions of indigenous Taíno population, Africans and Europeans to the region.
Chapter One presents an historical overview of the Dominican Republic and insight into how the relationship between the Dominican Republic and Haiti has shaped both countries' concept of race, culture and ethnic identity in very different ways. Further, this chapter will outline specific structural components of the study. The remainder of this study is organized as follows: Chapter Two discusses related background literature by Alan Cambiera, Joaquín Balaguer and Silvio Torres-Saillant. These authors, who are all Dominican, reflect three distinct insights into Dominican history, society and identity. Chapter Three outlines the methods and research process used in this project. Chapter Four presents the results of the fieldwork conducted for this study. The content of social science textbooks used in grades two, three, five and eight are analyzed with regard to their use of illustrations and activity design. Also, data gathered from interviews, participant observations and personal experience field notes are detailed. Lastly, Chapter Five summarizes and concludes the study.]
WINKLER-MOREY, Anne Regis. Good Neighbors: Popular Internationalists And United States' Relations With Mexico And The Caribbean Region (1918--1929). Pages: 00253. Degree: Ph.D. Institution: University of Minnesota 0130. Year: 2001. SUBJECT(S): History, Latin; American History, United States; Sociology, Ethnic And Racial Studies; Political Science, International Law And Relations. SOURCE: DAI, 62, no. 03A (2001): p. 1175. ACCESSION #: AAI3008742. [ABSTRACT: Popular Internationalists in the United States confronted U.S. Empire in Mexico and the Caribbean region between World War I and the Great Depression. Taking inspiration from Latin American Continentalists, Latinos, African Americans, political radicals, labors activists and feminists opposed U.S. occupations of Haiti, the Dominican Republic and Nicaragua, and economic and political intervention in Mexico. These good neighbors forced the United States government to make rhetorical and real changes in its Latin America policy. Transnational relationships developed by these social movement activists made it more difficult for foreign policy makers to effectively use white supremacy to promote and justify U.S. hegemony in Latin America.]
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